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  Glykon

Niños San Isidro 2007

 
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http://plato.alien.de/service-bildarchiv-muenchen-glyptothek.htm

                Medusa Rondanini, Munich

 

   

        LA SERPIENTE GLYKON

                         

GLYKON

                                               Dios serpiente creado por Alejandro de Abonuteico(Paflagonia)

El culto del dios-serpiente  Glykon fue creado a mediados del siglo II d.C. por el profeta griego Alejandro de Abonuteico, en el Ponto.

A el le dedicó un demoledor trabajo el escritor Luciano de Samosata(120-190 d.C.) titulado  Alejandro o El Falso Profeta. Según Luciano, Alejandro llevó a esta ciudad un huevo de serpiente  tomado de Macedonia e hizo creer en el nacimiento de un dios con esta forma.

- The prophet Alexander brought the god, a very large snake, to his home town Abonutichus in Paphlagonia and built a temple, which became an important oracle.


En  Abonuteico,  Glykon fue venerado como un nuevo Asclepio

Y tuvo un gran prestigio entre la población, que le atribuyó la salvación durante una epidemia en 160 d.C.  creyendo que se curaba con sus ritos mágicos.

 

Glykon (?) on a coin from Tomi
(Philippus Arabs, 244-249;
©!!)

 

 "Long-tressed Phoebus shall dispell the plague-cloud", a spell not only mentioned by Lucian, but also discovered on an inscription from Antioch, the capital of ancient Syria.

However, the breakthrough may have been earlier, because in 160, the oracle of Glykon had already found a protector in the governor of Asia, Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus (consul 146), who was to become son-in-law of the prophet. Abonutichus, once a small village of fishermen, became an important town and accepted another name, Ionopolis, 'Greek city'. Today, it is still called Inebolu. (A Turkish friend of the author of the present article once told him that in the early 1970's, when he was hunting in the hills near Inebolu, people warned him for a magical snake.)

 

            

THE NATIONAL HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY MUSEUM

CONSTANTA(Rumania)

 

Alexandre d'Abonuteichos

Alexandre d'Abonuteichos (né vers 105; décédé vers 175) était un prêtre de l'Antiquité et un mystique. Lié au culte d'Esculape et de Salus qui existait déjà et à l'imitation du culte d'Éleusis, cet élève du néo-pythagoricien Apollonius de Tyane institua vers 150 un oracle de Glycon dans la ville d'Abonuteichos en Paphlagonie.

Son culte du Nouvel Esculape, du serpent à tête humaine Glycon, se propagea jusqu'à Rome, dans l'espace danubien et la Syrie. Le culte se caractérisait par le secret, l'apparition d'un prophète, le silence pendant le culte et des fêtes à mystères. Le culte avait mauvaise réputation en raison de sa formule d'exclusion : « À la porte les chrétiens, à la porte les épicuriens » (Lucien, Alex. 38). Lucien, qui a écrit la biographie d'Alexandre, le dépeignait comme un charlatan, certainement intelligent mais sans scrupules, qui tirait profit de la mode des oracles, florissante au IIe siècle. Son livre qui date d'après 180 est un pamphlet rédigé sur un ton rationaliste, qui vise à dénoncer Alexandre comme un escroc. Malgré tout le culte survécut jusqu'au milieu du 3ème siècle.

Alexandre entretenait de bonnes relations à Rome qui le conduisirent pendant le règne d'Antonin le Pieux à rebaptiser la ville de son culte Abonuteichos en Ionopolis. C'est pourquoi, sous les règnes d'Antonin le Pieux, de Caracalla et de Maximin le Thrace, on frappa des monnaies dont le motif était le serpent rendant des oracles. Le culte se continua après la mort d'Alexandre mais sans l'oracle, avec Alexandre comme héros digne d'admiration.

 

Sources

 

Bibliographie

gobernador de Asia, Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus (cónsul 146), que era sentir bien al yerno del profeta. Abonutichus, una vez una aldea pequeña de pescadores, se convirtió en una ciudad importante y aceptó otro nombre, Ionopolis, la “ciudad griega”. Hoy, todavía se llama Inebolu. (Un amigo turco del autor del actual artículo una vez te dijo que en los años 70 tempranos, cuando él era caza en las colinas cerca de Inebolu, la gente lo advirtiera para una serpiente mágica.)  
Glykon en una moneda de Philip el árabe de Tomis (Moushmov 2326).
Glykon (?) en una moneda de Tomi
(Árabes de Philippus, 244-249;
©!!)

Hay una inscripción muy interesante de Caesarea Trocetta (en el menor de edad de Asia occidental) ese las menciones un sacerdote de “Miletus nombrado Apolo, hijo de Glykon de Paphlagonia”. Quizás, los padres de este hombre no podían tener niños y visitado el templo, después de lo cual la mujer hizo embarazada (cf. arriba, Olympias). Niños llevados después de que la intervención divina tuviera a menudo nombres que conmemoraron la ayuda del dios (cf. la historia contada por Lucas sobre el nacimiento de San Juan Bautista). Hasta cierto punto, esta inscripción confirma la declaración de Lucian que el charlatan Alexander tenía medios más worldly de ayudar a mujeres a hacer embarazadas.

Varios esmeros, figurillas y monedas, encontradas en el área entera entre el Danubio y el Euphrates, prueban que el culto de Glykon seguía siendo vivo hasta por lo menos un siglo después de la muerte del profeta en c.170. Incluso ahora consideraban a Alexander, ahora reconocido como el hijo de Podalirus y nieto de Asclepius, honores religiosos recibidos después de su muerte y ser el profeta del dios. Su éxito en establecer un nuevo culto se parece sintomático de la cambio en actitud religiosa, lejos de la creencia tradicional, que ocurrió en los últimos segundos y terceros siglos, y culminado en la subida de cristianismo.
 

According to the satirist Lucian, who provides the only literary reference to the deity, the cult of the snake god Glycon was founded in the mid-second century by the Greek prophet Alexander of Abonutichus. Lucian was ill-disposed toward the cult, calling Alexander the "oracle-monger" and accusing the whole enterprise of being a hoax - Glycon himself was supposedly a glove puppet.

 

Macedonian cultural roots

The cult was not simply the product of Lucian's comic imagination. There is solid archaeological evidence of its existence. It probably originated in Macedonia, where similar snake cults had existed for centuries. The Macedonians believed snakes had magical powers relating to fertility and had a rich mythology on this subject, for example the story of Olympias' impregnation by Zeus disguised as a serpent.

 

Early years

At least initially, the cult did not worship an abstraction or a spirit of a snake but an actual, physical serpent that was said to embody the god. According to the cult's mythology, the snake appeared after Alexander had foretold the coming of a new incarnation of Asclepius. When the people gathered in the marketplace of Abonutichus at noon, when the incarnation was supposed to occur, Alexander produced a serpent egg and sliced it open, revealing the god within. Within a week it grew to the size of a man with the features of a man on its face, including long blond hair. At this point the figure resembling this description was apparently a puppet that appeared in the temple. In some references Glycon was a trained snake with a puppet head.

As with previous Macedonian snake cults, the focus of worship at the temple was on fertility. Barren women would bring offerings to Glycon in hopes of becoming pregnant. According to Lucian, Alexander had less magical ways of causing pregnancy among his flock as well. The god was also believed to offer protection against the plague.

....................................

Spread and influence

By 160, the worship of Glycon had undoubtedly spread beyond the Aegean. An inscription from Antioch of that date records a slogan, "Glycon protect us from the plague-cloud" that is consistent with the description we have from Lucian. Also in that year the governor of Asia, Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus, declared himself protector of Glycon's oracle. The governor later married Alexander's daughter. According to Lucian, another Roman governor, of Cappadocia, was led by Glycon's oracle to his death in Armenia, and even the Emperor himself was not immune to the cult: Marcus Aurelius sought prophesies from Alexander and his snake god.

.................................             ......

Meanwhile, Abonutichus, a small fishing village before the arrival of the cult, became an important town and accepted another name, Ionopolis. It is uncertain what role the popularity of Glycon played in the rise of the city.

 

                        

Philip II & Serapis AE28 of Tomis, Thrace. Coiled serpent Glycon with radiate head.

Philip II & Serapis AE28 of Tomis, Thrace. M IOVL FILIPPOC KAICAP, confronted draped busts / MHTROP PONTOU TOMEWC, coiled serpent Glycon with radiate head. Moushmov 2326. No.2812. VF, somewhat off-center.

 

In short order Glycon worship was found throughout the vast area between the Danube and Euphrates. Beginning late in the reign of Antoninus Pius and continuing into the third century, official Roman coins were struck in honor of Glycon, attesting his popularity. While the cult gradually lost followers after the death of its leader in c.170, it survived for at least a hundred years thereafter, with Alexander being incorporated into its mythology as a grandson of Asclepius. Some evidence indicates the cult survived into the fourth century.

..................................

second century CE; said to be from Athens
In the second century CE, Alexander of Abonouteichos, living on the Black Sea, delivered oracles through a supposedly miraculous snake with a human head; Lucian says he fitted a live snake with a human-like mask with shaggy hair.
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Credits: Barbara McManus, 2002
Keywords: superstition; oracle; prophecy

 

                                           

Modern times

Residual superstitions originating with Glycon were reported by some researchers to continue even into modern times. A Turkish friend of Jona Lendering once told him that in the early 1970s, when he was hunting in the hills near Inebolu, the modern name of Ionopolis, people warned him about a magical snake.

Following his (as he put it) "coming out" as a magician in 1993, the British comic book writer and occultist Alan Moore has declared himself a devotee of Glycon, and has cheerfully admitted in interviews the absurdity of worshiping a probable fraud, a fact symbolic of Moore's stated belief in the "reality" of ideas, including fictions. He has performed spoken word under the name the Moon and Serpent Grand Egyptian Theatre of Marvels.

 

See also

 

References

 

External Links