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"Primero te ignoran, luego te descalifican, luego te discuten, y al final afirman que esa idea era suya".

                                  Robert Bauval, corroborada por el Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe, catedrático de matemática aplicada y astrónomo

                                                                        en la Universidad de Cardiff 

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<1.Corona  de filigrana de oro<<2.Sello de oro <<3. Collar  mágico de oro y ágata << 4.Cinturón de bellotas de oro << 5.Cilindros-sello<6. Espejo bronce y oro     <<<7.Brazalete mágico   <<<  8.Collar  mágico de oro  con cierre de serpientes<< << 9.El demonio Pazuzu << 10.Pie votivo sumerio con seis dedos << 11. Encantamiento contra Lamashtu << 12.  Bowl arameo encantamiento   <<<< 13. Placa del Infierno.Pazuzu <<14. Gorgona Medusa, Siracusa 

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                                                                                            11. ENCANTAMIENTO CONTRA LAMASHTU



Lamashtu is an evil demon who preys upon unborn and newborn children. She had a hairy body, a lioness' head with donkey's teeth and ears, long fingers and fingernails and the feet of a bird with sharp talons.

She is often shown standing or kneeling on a donkey, nursing a pig and a dog, and holding snakes.

Pregnant women often wore amulets of Pazuzu, the demon who fought against Lamashtu.


Picture list



                                                                                         11. INSCRIPCIÓN MÁGICA CONTRA LA LAMASHTU

MS 2779




Lion-headed Lamashtu, holding snakes and with pig and dog at her breasts

Lion-headed Lamashtu, holding snakes and with pig and dog at her breasts. On one side there is a lamp, on the other a human head. On the back is a magical incantation. Yellow alabaster. Dating from around 605-562 B.C.E.
Drawing © S. Beaulieu, after Pritchard 1969: 215, Plate 657.


Lamaštu (Lamashtu)

Lamaštu (also written Lamashtu) was an evil and malevolent demon goddess within the Mesopotamian pantheon - as the daughter of the god An and acting according to her own initiative, rather than at the gods' instruction, she represented something more than the usual demonic power. The writing of her name in cuneiform further suggests that Lamaštu was considered a goddess in her own right.

Lamaštu practised evil apparently for its own sake, her primary victims considered to be unborn chlildren and new-born babies. Pregnant women were therefore also her targets, Lamaštu generally being held responsible for miscarriage and cot death amongst babies. It was believed, in the first instance, that the wearing by the expectant mother of an amuletic bronze head of the demon Pazuzu might thwart the goddess' evil plans. Another apotropaic device in warding off Lamaštu was the positioning of the so-called 'Lamaštu-plaques' of metal or stone about the house, these including a depiction of Pazuzu forcing Lamaštu back into the Underworld from whence she came. Rather than a pregnant woman, however, these plaques depict a bed-ridden man, suggesting that Lamaštu was also associated with disease. Finally, the ritual offering of centipedes and brooches, amonst other items, were considered to distract Lamaštu from her intent.

In incantations Lamaštu is described as possessing the head of a lion, a donkey's teeth, bare breasts and a hairy body, blood-stained hands with long fingers and nails, and the clawed, talon-like feet of the bird-demon Anzû (Imdugud). Iconographic depictions of Lamaštu in the 9th - 7th centuries BCE have her wearing upright ears, like those of a donkey, whilst a piglet and a whelp suckle at her breasts. She frequently stands or kneels on the figure of a donkey and holds snakes in both hands. Her particular beast was the donkey and her associated object a boat, in which Lamaštu was thought to navigate the river of the Underworld.

Incantation against Lamaštu:

Great is the daughter of Heaven who tortures babies
Her hand is a net, her embrace is death
She is cruel, raging, angry, predatory
A runner, a thief is the daughter of Heaven
She touches the bellies of women in labor
She pulls out the pregnant women’s baby
The daughter of Heaven is one of the Gods, her brothers
With no child of her own.
Her head is a lion’s head
Her body is a donkey’s body
She roars like a lion
She constantly howls like a demon-dog.

Image Source: Keel, Othmar, Die Welt der altorientalischen Bildsymbolik und das AT, 1980, Abb. 94, S. 71.

Select Bibliography

Farber, W.

1987 "Tamarisken-Fibeln-Skolpender: Zur philologischen Deutung der 'Reiseszene' auf neuassyrischen Lamaštu-Amuletten", in Rochberg-Halton, F.(ed.), Language, Literature and History: Philological and Historical Studies Presented to Erica Reiner, [American Oriental Series 67], New Haven, 1987, pp.85-105.

1997 "ištu api ilâma ez™ezu ezzet: Ein bedeutsammes neues Lamaštu-Amulett", Röllig AV = AOAT 1997 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1997), pp.115-28.






MS in Babylonian on red jasper, Babylonia, 1000-600 BC, 1 plaque, 6,2x4,7x1,2 cm, single column, 10 lines of monumental cuneiform script, 5 illustrations, the main illustration showing the female demon Lamashtu standing on the back of a horse, suckling a piglet and a whelp and with a snake in each hand, with a loop handle.

Commentary: This monster demon was well known in the Ancient Near East for killing or removing new-born babies, slipping unnoticed into the house at their most vulnerable period. She was the daughter of Anu, the head of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Some amulets were designed to be worn by the mother, like the present one, others by the baby, and the biggest examples to be hung on the bed, or on the wall.

A long ritual was used to combat her. A likeness of Lamashtu was placed in a little boat together with items of female apparel and offerings to distract her attention. The model boat was then placed in the swift-flowing Tigris River, and she was borne away to the Underworld, leaving mankind in peace.
As a deterrent mothers often wore a bronze head of the god Pazuzu to protect them and force Lamashtu back to the underworld.