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Bagdad,20-3-02.Sobre la tumba de Sherezade (Fotos Irak 2002);

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                                              "Primero te ignoran, luego te descalifican, luego te discuten, y al final afirman que esa idea era suya".

                                  Robert Bauval, corroborada por el Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe, catedrático de matemática aplicada y astrónomo

                                                                        en la Universidad de Cardiff 

                                                                           <<< http://www.baghdadmuseum.org/secret_s/index.<<<<

 

<<1.Corona  de filigrana de oro<<2.Sello de oro <<3. Collar  mágico de oro y ágata <<4. Cinturón de bellotas de oro <<

<< 5.Cilindros-sello<6. Espejo bronce y oro     <<<7.Brazalete mágico   <<<  8.Collar  mágico de oro  con cierre de serpientes<< 9. Pazuzu, Oslo <<< http://www.schoyencollection.com/magical.htm<< 9.El demonio Pazuzu << 10.Pie votivo sumerio con seis dedos << 11. Encantamiento contra Lamashtu << 12.  Bowl arameo encantamiento   << 13. Placa del Infierno. Pazuzu <<14. Gorgona Medusa, Siracusa  << 15. Tablilla cuneiforme<<< 16. Inanna <<< 17. Collar mágico asirio <<<< 18.Lista de ciudades y reyes de después del Diluvio  <<< 19.Ninive  <<<20  Shuruppak . <<<< 21 Sumerian Kings List.   <<<22. iwa.univie.ac.at/iraqarchive74.html  ( 74  Archivos sobre las destrucciones  arqueológicas en Irak)

                                                                             

Sumerian literature

MS 3396 Sumer, ca. 2600 BC
MS 3026 Babylonia, 19th-18th c. BC
MS 2652/1 Babylonia, ca. 18th c. BC
MS 3283 Babylonia, 1900-1700 BC
MS 2367/1 Babylonia, 20th-17th c. BC

MS 3396

INSTRUCTIONS OF SHURUPPAK, proofRB COLLECTION

 

 

ms3396MS in Sumerian on clay, Sumer, ca. 2600 BC, 1 tablet, 8,7x8,7x2,5 cm, 2 columns + 2 blank columns, 8+8 compartments in cuneiform script, reverse blank. Context: For the Old Babylonian recension of the text, see MSS 2817 (lines 1-22), 3352 (lines 1-38), 2788 (lines 1-45), 2291 (lines 88-94), 2040 (lines 207-216), 3400 (lines 342-345), MS 3176/1, text 3, and 3366.

Context: For the Old Babylonian recension of the text, see MSS 2788 (lines 1-45), 2291 (lines 88-94) and 2040 (lines 207-216).

Commentary: The present Early Dynastic tablet is one of a few that represent the earliest literature in the world. Only 3 groups of texts are known from the dawn of literature: The Shuruppak instructions, The Kesh temple hymn, and various incantations (see MS 4549). The instructions are addressed by the ante-diluvian ruler Shuruppak, to his son Ziusudra, who was the Sumerian Noah, cf. MS 3026, the Sumerian Flood Story, and MS 2950, Atra- Hasis, the Old Babylonian Flood Story. The Shuruppak instructions can be said to be the Sumerian forerunner of the 10 Commandments and some of the proofrbs of the Bible: Line 50: Do not curse with powerful means (3rd Commandment); lines 28: Do not kill (6th Commandment); line 33-34: Do not laugh with or sit alone in a chamber with a girl that is married (7th Commandment); lines 28-31: Do not steal or commit robbery (8th Commandment); and line 36: Do not spit out lies (9th Commandment).


The instructions of Shuruppag

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

ETCSL Home Page


In those days, in those far remote days, in those nights, in those faraway nights, in those years, in those far remote years, at that time the wise one who knew how to speak in elaborate words lived in the Land; Curuppag, the wise one, who knew how to speak with elaborate words lived in the Land. Curuppag gave instructions to his son; Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu gave instructions to his son Zi-ud-sura: My son, let me give you instructions: you should pay attention! Zi-ud-sura, let me speak a word to you: you should pay attention! Do not neglect my instructions! Do not transgress the words I speak! The instructions of an old man are precious; you should comply with them!

You should not buy a donkey which brays; it will split (?) your midriff (?).

You should not locate a field on a road; ....... You should not plough a field at (1 ms. adds: a road or) a path; ....... You should not make a well in your field: people will cause damage on it for you. You should not place your house next to a public square: there is always a crowd (?) there.

You should not vouch for someone: that man will have a hold on you; and you yourself, you should not let somebody vouch for you (1 ms. adds:: that man will despise (?) you).

You should not make an inspection (?) on a man: the flood (?) will give it back (?) to you.

You should not loiter about where there is a quarrel; you should not let the quarrel make you a witness. You should not let (?) yourself ...... in a quarrel. You should not cause a quarrel; ....... ...... the gate of the palace ....... Stand aside from a quarrel, ...... you should not take (?) another road.

You should not steal anything; you should not ...... yourself. You should not break into a house; you should not wish for the money chest (?). A thief is a lion, but after he has been caught, he will be a slave. My son, you should not commit robbery; you should not cut yourself with an axe.

You should not make a young man best man. You should not ...... yourself. You should not play around with a married young woman: the slander could be serious. My son, you should not sit alone in a chamber with a married woman.

You should not pick a quarrel; you should not disgrace yourself. You should not ...... lies; ....... You should not boast; then your words will be trusted. You should not deliberate for too long (?); you cannot bear ...... glances.

You should not eat stolen food with anyone (1 ms. has instead: a thief). You should not sink (?) your hand into blood. After you have apportioned the bones, you will be made to restore the ox, you will be made to restore the sheep.

You should not speak improperly; later it will lay a trap for you.

You should not scatter your sheep into unknown pastures. You should not hire someone's ox for an uncertain ....... A safe ...... means a safe journey.

You should not travel during the night: it can hide both good and evil.

You should not buy an onager: it lasts (?) only until the end of the day.

You should not have sex with your slave girl: she will chew you up (?).

You should not curse strongly: it rebounds on you.

You should not draw up water which you cannot reach (1 ms. has instead: grasp): it will make you weak.

1 line unclear

You should not drive away a debtor: he will be hostile towards you.

You should not establish a home with an arrogant man: he will make your life like that of a slave girl. You will not be able to travel through any human dwelling without be being shouted at: "There you go! There you go!"

You should not undo the ...... of the garden's reed fence; "Restore it! Restore it!" they will say to you.

You should not provide a stranger (?) with food; you should not wipe out (?) a quarrel.

My son, you should not use violence (?); ....... You should not commit rape on someone's daughter; the courtyard will learn of it.

You should not drive away a powerful (1 ms. has instead: strong) man; you should not destroy the outer wall. You should not drive away a young man; you should not make him turn against the city.

The eyes of the slanderer always move around as shiftily as a spindle. You should never remain in his presence; his intentions (?) should not be allowed to have an effect (?) on you.

You should not boast in beer halls (1 ms. has instead: breweries) like a deceitful man: (1 ms. adds: then your words will be trusted.)

Having reached the field of manhood, you should not jump (?) with your hand. The warrior is unique, he alone is the equal of many; Utu is unique, he alone is the equal of many. With your life you should always be on the side of the warrior; with your life you should always be on the side of Utu.

Curuppag gave these instructions to his son. Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu, gave these instructions to his son Zi-ud-sura.

A second time, Curuppag gave instructions to his son. Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu gave instructions to his son Zi-ud-sura: My son, let me give you instructions: you should pay attention! Zi-ud-sura, let me speak a word to you: you should pay attention! Do not neglect my instructions! Do not transgress the words I speak! (1 ms. adds the line: The instructions of an old man are precious; you should comply with them! )

The beer-drinking mouth ....... My little one ....... The beer-drinking mouth ....... Ninkasi .......

5 lines unclear

Your own man will not repay (?) it for you. The reed-beds are ......, they can hide (?) slander.

The palace is like a mighty river: its middle is goring bulls; what flows in is never enough to fill it, and what flows out can never be stopped.

When it is about someone's else bread, it is easy to say "I will give it to you", but the time of actual giving can be as far away as the sky. If you go after the man who said "I will give it to you", he will say "I cannot give it to you -- the bread has just been finished up".

Property is something to be expanded (?); but nothing can equal my little ones.

The artistic mouth recites words; the harsh mouth brings litigation documents; the sweet mouth gathers sweet herbs.

The garrulous (1 ms. has instead: liar) fills (?) his bread bag; the haughty one brings an empty bag and can fill his empty mouth only with boasting.

Who works with leather will eventually (?) work with his own leather.

The strong one can escape (?) from anyone's hand.

The fool loses something. When sleeping, the fool loses something. "Do not tie me up!" he pleads; "Let me live!" he pleads.

The imprudent decrees fates; the shameless one piles up (?) things in another's lap: "I am such that I deserve admiration".

A weak wife is always seized (?) by fate.

If you hire a worker, he will share the bread bag with you; he eats with you from the same bag, and finishes up the bag with you. Then he will quit working with you and, saying "I have to live on something", he will serve at the palace.

You tell your son to come to your home; you tell your daughter to go to her women's quarters.

You should not pass judgment when you drink beer.

You should not worry unduly about what leaves the house.

Heaven is far, earth is most precious, but it is with heaven that you multiply your goods, and all foreign lands breathe under it.

At harvest time, at the most priceless time, collect like a slave girl, eat like a queen; my son, to collect like a slave girl, to eat like a queen, this is how it should be.

Who insults can hurt only the skin; greedy eyes (?), however, can kill. The liar, shouting, tears up his garments. Insults bring (?) advice to the wicked. To speak arrogantly is like an abscess: a herb that makes the stomach sick.

1 line is unclear

My words of prayer bring abundance. Prayer is cool water that cools the heart. Only (?) insults and stupid speaking receive the attention of the Land.

Curuppag gave these instructions to his son. Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu, gave these instructions to his son Zi-ud-sura.

A third time, Curuppag gave instructions to his son. Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu gave instructions to his son Zi-ud-sura: My son, let me give you instructions: you should pay attention! Zi-ud-sura, let me speak a word to you: you should pay attention! Do not neglect my instructions! Do not transgress the words I speak! (Some mss. add the line: The instructions of an old man are precious; you should comply with them! )

You should not beat a farmer's son: he has constructed (?) your embankments and ditches.

You should not buy a prostitute: she is a mouth that bites. You should not buy a house-born slave: he is a herb that makes the stomach sick. You should not buy a free man: he will always lean against the wall. You should not buy a palace slave girl: she will always be the bottom of the barrel (?). You should rather bring down a foreign slave from the mountains, or you should bring somebody from a place where he is an alien; my son, then he will pour water for you where the sun rises and he will walk before you. He does not belong to any family, so he does not want to go to his family; he does not belong to any city, so he does not want to go to his city. (1 ms. adds 2 lines: He cannot knock at the door of ......, he cannot enter .......) He will not ...... with you, he will not be presumptuous with you.

My son, you should not travel alone eastwards. Your acquaintance should not .......

A name placed on another one ......; you should not pile up a mountain on another one.

Fate is a wet bank; it can make one slip.

The elder brother is indeed like a father; the elder sister is indeed like a mother. Listen therefore to your elder brother, and you should be obedient to your elder sister as if she were your mother.

You should not work using only your eyes; you will not multiply your possessions using only your mouth.

The negligent one ruins (?) his family.

The need for food makes some people ascend the mountains; it also brings traitors and foreigners, since the need for food brings down other people from the mountains.

A small city provides (?) its king with a calf; a huge city digs (?) a house plot (?).

...... is well equipped. The poor man inflicts all kinds of illnesses on the rich man. The married man is well equipped; the unmarried makes his bed in a haystack (?). He who wishes to destroy a house will go ahead and destroy the house; he who wishes to raise up will go ahead and raise up.

By grasping the neck of a huge ox, you can cross the river. By moving along (?) at the side of the mighty men of your city, my son, you will certainly ascend (?).

When you bring a slave girl from the hills, she brings both good and evil with her. The good is in the hands; the evil is in the heart. The heart does not let go of the good; but the heart cannot let go of the evil either. As if it were a watery place, the heart does not abandon the good. Evil is a store-room .......
(1 ms. adds: 2 lines unclear)
May the boat with the evil sink in the river! May his waterskin split in the desert!

A loving heart maintains a family; a hateful heart destroys a family.

To have authority, to have possessions and to be steadfast are princely divine powers. You should submit to the respected; you should be humble before the powerful. My son, you will then survive (?) against the wicked.

You should not choose a wife during a festival. Her inside is illusory (?); her outside is illusory (?). The silver on her is borrowed; the lapis lazuli on her is borrowed (1 ms. has instead the line: ......; the jewellery on her is borrowed, the jewellery on her is borrowed). The dress on her is borrowed; the linen garment on her is borrowed. With ...... nothing (?) is comparable.

You should not buy a ...... bull. You should not buy a vicious bull; ...... a hole (?) in the cattle-pen .......

One appoints (?) a reliable woman for a good household.

You should not buy a donkey at the time of harvest. A donkey which eats ...... will ...... with another donkey.

A vicious donkey hangs its neck; however, a vicious man, my son, .......

A woman with her own property ruins the house.

A drunkard will drown the harvest.

A female burglar (?) ...... ladder; she flies into the houses like a fly. A she-donkey ...... on the street. A sow suckles its child on the street. A woman who pricked herself begins to cry and holds the spindle which pricked (?) her in her hand. She enters every house; she peers into all streets. ...... she keeps saying "Get out!" She looks around (?) from all parapets. She pants (?) where there is a quarrel.

2 lines unclear

Marry (?) ...... whose heart hates (?). My son, ......

4 lines unclear

A heart which overflows with joy .......

Nothing at all is to be valued, but life should be sweet. You should not serve things; things should serve you. My son, .......

You should not ...... grain; its ...... are numerous.

You should not abuse a ewe; otherwise you will give birth to a daughter. You should not throw a lump of earth into the money chest (?); otherwise you will give birth to a son.

You should not abduct a wife; you should not make her cry (?). The place where the wife is abducted to .......

"Let us run in circles (?), saying: "Oh, my foot, oh, my neck!". Let us with united forces (?) make the mighty bow!"

You should not kill a ......, he is a child born by ....... You should not kill ...... like ......; you should not bind him.

The wet-nurses in the women's quarters determine the fate of their lord.

You should not speak arrogantly to your mother; that causes hatred for you. You should not question the words of your mother and your personal god. The mother, like Utu, gives birth to the man; the father, like a god, makes him bright (?). The father is like a god: his words are reliable. The instructions of the father should be complied with.

Without suburbs a city has no centre either.

My son, a field situated at the bottom of the embankments, be it wet or dry, is nevertheless a source of income.

It is inconceivable (?) that something is lost forever.

...... of Dilmun ......

o get lost is bad for a dog; but terrible for a man (1 ms. has instead: An unknown place is terrible; to get lost is shameful (?) for a dog). On the unfamiliar way at the edge of the mountains, the gods of the mountains are man-eaters. They do not build houses there as men do; they do not build cities there as men do.

1 line unclear

For the shepherd, he stopped searching, he stopped bringing back the sheep. For the farmer (?), he stopped ploughing the field.

1 line unclear

This gift of words is something which soothes the mind ......; when it enters the palace, it soothes the mind ....... The gift of many words ...... stars.

These are the instructions given by Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu.

Praise be to the lady who completed the great tablets, the maiden Nisaba, that Curuppag, the son of Ubara- Tutu gave his instructions!

Shuruppak

 Imagen:Ciudades de Sumeria.svg
Localización de las antiguas ciudades sumerias

Shuruppak, también llamada Curuppag, fue una antigua ciudad sumeria. Sus restos se encuentran localizados en el yacimiento de Tell Fara, a 200 kilómetros al sureste de Bagdad, en Iraq,

Shuruppak (also Shuruppag "the healing place", modern Tell Fara, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian city situated south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates in what is now Al-Qādisiyyah, in south-central Iraq[1].

Shuruppak was dedicated to Ninlil, also called Sud, the goddess of grain and the air.

In Sumerian mythology, Ninlil (𒀭𒊩𒌆𒆤 DNIN.LÍL"lady of the open field" or "Lady of the Air"), first called Sud, in Assyrian called Mullitu, is the consort goddess of Enlil. Her parentage is variously described. Most commonly she is called the daughter of Haia (god of stores) and Nunbarsegunu (or Ninshebargunnu (a goddess of barley) or Nisaba). Other sources call her a daughter of An and Nammu.

She lived in Dilmun with her family. Raped and ravaged by her (now-present) husband Enlil, who impregnated her with water, she conceived a boy, Nanna Suen, the future moon god.

 

Historia

Shuruppak became a grain storage and distribution city and had more silos than any other Sumerian city. The earliest excavated levels at Shuruppak date to the Jemdet Nasr period about 3,000 BC; it was abandoned shortly after 2,000 BC. Schmidt found one Isin-Larsa cylinder seal and several pottery plaques which may date to early in the second millennium BC. [1] Surface finds are predominantly Early Dynastic. [2]

At the end of the Uruk period there was an archaeologically attested river flood in Shuruppak. Polychrome pottery from a destruction level below the flood deposit has been dated to the Jemdet Nasr period that immediately preceded the Early Dynastic I period.[3] [4]

 

La ciudad de Shuruppak se fundó a principios del período Jemdet Nasr.[1] Antes, durante el período de Uruk, había habido en esa zona algunas aldeas y un pueblo mediano.[2] En esta primera etapa de la ciudad se produjo una gran inundación fluvial que se encuentra probada arqueológicamente y que ha sido datada mediante el método del radiocarbono hacia 2900 adC.[3] La cerámica policroma de los niveles arqueológicos inmediatamente anteriores a la inundación ha sido datada como perteneciente al periodo de Jemdet Nasr el cual es el predecesor inmediato del período Dinástico Arcaico I.[4]

En ese nuevo período muchas aldeas y pequeños núcleos de población fueron abandonados, desplazándose sus habitantes a las ciudades, en las que el control de los recursos hídricos y agrícolas se hacía más sencillo. Así, durante el dinástico arcaico, Shuruppak creció con rapidez, llegando a ocupar 100 ha y a contar con una población de entre 15.000 y 30.000 habitantes.[2]

El desarrollo de la ciudad se vio truncado hacia el 2300 adC por un incendio que destruyó completamente la ciudad, pero que facilitó la conservación de los restos arqueológicos cerámicos. Entre ellos ha llamado la atención de los arqueólogos una tablilla que hace referencia al recibimiento de un gran número de hombres procedentes de toda la región, entre cuyas funciones se habrían encontrado tareas agrícolas y militares. Se ha especulado sobre la posibilidad de que se tratase de una fuerza de defensa ante la expansión de la ciudad de Ur, la cual en ese período estaba construyendo su hegemonía sobre el resto de ciudades. En ese caso, el incendio de la ciudad podría explicarse como resultado de la guerra. Sin embargo no hay otros documentos que atestigüen que se produjese un conflicto.[2]

Tras el incendio Shuruppak fue reconstruida y parece que hacia el 2000 adC seguía siendo una ciudad importante, dotándose en esa fecha de murallas. Tras la caída del imperio basado en la hegemonía de la tercera dinastía de Ur, la ciudad cayó en declive.[2]

Sociedad

Tablilla del 2600 adC encontrada en Shuruppak; contiene un contrato en sumerio en escritura pre-cuneiforme acerca de un campo y una casa.
Tablilla del 2600 adC encontrada en Shuruppak; contiene un contrato en sumerio en escritura pre-cuneiforme acerca de un campo y una casa.

No se ha hallado ningún edificio monumental en las ruinas de Shuruppak y la tradición mesopotámica posterior tampoco mencionó ningún culto específico en la ciudad, siendo posible que no tuviese ningún santuario de importancia.[2]

En Shuruppak se han encontrado los que se han considerado los primeros documentos escritos: las llamadas tablillas de Fara. En ellas, el sistema de escritura pictográfico ha sido sustituido por un sistema mixto fonológico y pictográfico. El idioma recogido en en ellas es sumerio. Entre los primeros textos se encuentran principalmente tablillas de carácter administrativo; sin embargo, también existen colecciones de refranes o "instrucciones", hechizos mágicos y listas de vocabulario orientadas al aprendizaje.[2]

La sociedad de Shuruppak parece haber estado al menos en parte jerarquizada al haberse encontrado tablillas con datos administrativos relativos al funcionamiento de la ciudad en casas aparentemente privadas, rodeadas de murallas. Además las tumbas que se han explorado muestran bastante diferencia entre el estatus de unos individuos y otros, visibles en los objetos enterrados junto a ellos. El consenso actual es que existía una combinación de estructuras centrales y comunitarias de poder. Así, cada ciudadano tendría sus propios terrenos y bienes, de los cuales tenía que rendir cuentas, mediante algún tipo de tributo o trabajo, a la ciudad.[2]

Mitología

En la versión WB-62 de la lista Real Sumeria se mencionan dos reyes/dirigentes de Shuruppak. Ziusudra reinó durante 10 shar.[5] Ziusudra está precedido en la lista real por su padre, SU.KUR.LAM, que ostentó también la realeza en Shuruppak rigiéndola durante 8 shar.[6]

Shuruppak fue conocida en la tradición mesopótamica posterior por haber sido hogar del héroe del Diluvio mesopotámico: Ziusudra Utnapishtim (en el poema de Gilgamesh) o Atrahasis (en la tradición babilónica). Según este mito Enlil, molesto por lo ruidoso de los humanos decide destruirlos. Enki, advertido de sus intenciones y sabiendo que los dioses necesitan los sacrificios que los hombres ofrecen, informa a Atra-hasis de que construya una barca en la cual, una vez comienza la inundación, suben él y su esposa guardando semen de todos los animales. Cuando al fin se retiran las aguas, la pareja ofrece un sacrificio a los dioses que estos reciben hambrientos. Al final, los dioses crean nuevos seres humanos, reprenden a Enlil y otorgan la inmortalidad a Atra-hasis y su esposa.[2] En la versión sumeria de este mismo relato se menciona que Shuruppak fue entregada al culto de Sud.[7]

Trabajos arqueológicos

En 1900 el alemán Hermann Hilprecht realizó una excavación superficial, tras lo que recomendó una exploración en profundidad a la la “Sociedad Oriental Alemana” ("Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft"), que inició los trabajos dos años después. En sus trabajos, los alemanes hallaron 840 tablillas de barro, numerosos sellos e inscripciones de estos así como casas y tumbas. Pese a esto en 1903 se cesó en la excavación. Tras los alemanes, una breve expedición de la Universidad de Pensilvania recogio nuevos objetos e inscripciones.[8] En 1973 se realizó de nuevo una prospección por Harriet Martín de la Universidad de Birmingham,[9] Desde entonces no se han realizado nuevas excavaciones.[2]

Referencias

  1. Robert McC. Adams, Heartland of Cities (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), Fig. 33 compared with Fig. 21.
  2. a b c d e f g h i Leick, Gwendolyn: «Suruppak», en Mesopotamia: la invención de la ciudad. Barcelona: Rubí 2002. 84-493-1275-2
  3. Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians, (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991), p. 19.
  4. Schmidt (1931)
  5. S. Langdon, "The Chaldean Kings Before the Flood," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1923), pp 251-259.
  6. S. Langdon, "The Chaldean Kings Before the Flood," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1923), pp 258.
  7. Noah Kramer, Samuel (1985), La historia empieza en Sumer (I ed.), Orbis, Barcelona, España, [1 de febrero de 2008]
  8. Erik Schmidt, Excavations at Fara, 1931, University of Pennsylvania's Museum Journal, 2 (1931), pp 193-217.
  9. Harriet P. Martin, FARA: A reconstruction of the Ancient Mesopotamian City of Shuruppak, Birmingham, UK: Chris Martin & Assoc., (1988).

 

 

E-an-na-túm-me

yo E an na tum

 

 

šuš-gal

 

 

babbar

 

 

lugal zal-ší(g)-ga-ka

 

 

 

lù giš-HUki-ra

 

 

e-ma-sum

 

 

 

La figura  muestra una inscripción del rey Eannatúm de Lagas (alrededor del 2.700 a. C.). Este es un claro ejemplo que muestra una etapa intermedia entre la escritura pictográfica y la cuneiforme.

El texto dice lo siguiente: Yo, Ennatúm la gran (gal) red de Babbar (dios solar) el rey, el resplandor de luz, sobre los habitantes de Umma la lancé

 

Desde el año 625 hasta el 539 a. C., se establece la dinastía caldea, cuyo representante más conspicuo será Nabucodonosor II (604-562). La figura inferior muestra un ladrillo inscrito de este rey.

nabu-ku-du-ur-ri-usur LUGAL KA.DINGIR.RA
Nabu-kudurri-usur sar Babili
Nabucodonosor rey de Babilonia

za-ni-in e-sag-il u e-zi-da
zanin Esgila u Ezid
protector de Esagila y Ezida

IBILA a-sa-re-du
aplu asaredu
primogénito

sa nabu-IBIL.A-URU LUGAL KA.DINGIR.RA
sa Nabu-apla-usur sar Babili
de Nabopolasar rey de Babilonia.
0000000000

La figura inferior muestra tres nombres de divinidades sumerias; cada una de ellas comienza con el mismo símbolo que es el carácter para dios.

 

El sistema de numeración

Los números tienen una forma más angular que en el sistema proto-sumerio:

En el sistema babilonio tardío (2.000 a. C. - 75 d. C.), los números fueron escritos, por propósitos matemáticos, en un sistema de notación simple, por el que el lugar que ocupan determina su valor:

Algunas veces, los números fueron usados para escribir de forma criptográfica, de manera que los nombres de algunos dioses se escriben con números: