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ETCSLtranslation : t.2.1.1 ETCSL homepage

The Sumerian king list

  (in the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB)

1-39. After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alalĝar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Šuruppag. In Šuruppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.

40-94. After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš. In Kiš, Ĝušur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bēl ruled for {960} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900} years. Nanĝišlišma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {670} (?) years. En-taraḫ-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {420} years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) {300} years. Puannum ruled for {840} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 240} years. Kalibum ruled for {960} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900} years. Kalūmum ruled for {840} {(mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead:) 900} years. Zuqāqīp ruled for {900} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 600} years. (in mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th) {Atab} {(mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead:) A-ba} ruled for 600 years. Mašda, the son of Atab, ruled for {840} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 720} years. Arwium, the son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for {1500} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 635} years. Baliḫ, the son of Etana, ruled for {400} {(mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead:) 410} years. En-me-nuna ruled for {660} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 621} years. Melem-Kiš, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna.} {Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna,} {(mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead:) Barsal-nuna} ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqār, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X …….} Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-me-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-barage-si.} 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

95-133. In E-ana, Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for {324} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 325} years. Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the king of Unug, {who built Unug} {(mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built}, became king; he ruled for {420} {(ms. TL has instead:) 900 + X} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer.} {(ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.} Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman whose city was Kuara, ruled for {100} {(ms. TL has instead:) 110} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.} Gilgameš, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of {Ur-Nungal} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal}, ruled for 15 years. Lā-ba’šum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-taraḫ-ana ruled for 8 years. Meš-ḫe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. {Melem-ana} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) ……} ruled for {6} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 900} years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for {36} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 420} years. 12 kings; they ruled for {2310} {(ms. Su2 has instead:) 3588} years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

134-147. In Urim, Meš-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. {Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) Meš-ki-aĝ-nuna}, the son of Meš-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for {36} {(ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 30} years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {25} years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {36} years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) {4} kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) {171} years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

148-159. In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

160-178. In Kiš, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) {81} years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for {360} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420} years. Kalbum, the son of {Mamagal} {(ms. WB has instead:) Magalgal}, ruled for {195} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 132} years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna {,(ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?),} ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalĝu ruled for {360} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420} years. 8 kings; they ruled for {3195} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 3792} years. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ḫamazi.

179-185. In Ḫamazi, Hadaniš became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Ḫamazi was defeated and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a second time} to Unug.

(in mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of lines 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of lines 192-203)

186-192. In Unug, En-šag-kuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. {Lugal-ure} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) Lugal-kiniše-dudu (?)} ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) {3} kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) {187} years. Then Unug was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Urim.

193-204. In Urim, Nanni became king; he ruled for {(ms. vD has:) 120 + X} {(ms. IB has instead:) 54 + X} years. Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna, the son of Nanni, ruled for (ms. vD has:) {48} years. {……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) {2} years. (ms. IB has:) {3} kings; they ruled for {(ms. IB has:) 582} {(ms. TL has instead:) 578} years.} {(ms. vD has instead:) 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.} Then Urim was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Adab.

205-210. In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {90} years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {1} king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) {90} years. Then Adab was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Mari.

211-223. In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for {30} {(ms. TL has instead:) 90} years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for {17} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7} years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudug priest, ruled for 30 years. Šarrum-īter ruled for {9} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7} years. 6 kings; they ruled for {136} {(ms. TL has instead:) 184} years. Then Mari was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

224-231. In Kiš, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kiš was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Akšak.

232-243. In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for {6} {(mss. L1+N1, S have instead:) 12} years. Urur {ruled for} {(ms. IB has instead:) was king (?) for} 6 years. Puzur-Niraḫ ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {20} years. Išu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) {24} years. Šu-Suen, the son of Išu-Il, ruled for {(mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 24} years. {(mss. S, Su1, TL have:) {6} kings; they ruled for {(mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 116} years} {(ms. IB has instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) {87} years}. {Then Akšak was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Akšak was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Kiš.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kiš of lines 224-231 and lines 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258. In Kiš, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for {400} {(mss. P3+BT14, S have instead:) 6} {(ms. IB has instead:) 4 + X} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau.} {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake} ruled for {30} {(ms. IB has instead:) 30 + X} years. Usi-watar, the son of {Zimudar} {(ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake}, ruled for {7} {(ms. S has instead:) 6} years. Eštar-muti ruled for {11} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 17 (?)} years. Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years. {(ms. Su1 adds:) Šu-ilīšu ruled for 15 years.} {Nanniya, the jeweller,} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Zimudar} {(ms. IB has instead:) ……} ruled for {7} {(ms. S has instead:) 3} years. {7 kings; they ruled for {491} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 485} years} {(ms. S has instead:) 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {586} years}. {Then Kiš was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Kiš was abolished} and the kingship {was taken} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a third time} to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of lines 258-263)

259-265. In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for {25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34} years. 1 king; he ruled for {25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34} years. {Then Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Agade.

266-296. In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, {who built Agade} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) under whom Agade was built}; he ruled for {56} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 55} {(ms. TL has instead:) 54} years. Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {9} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 15} years. Man-ištiššu, the older brother of Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {15} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7} years. Narām-Suen, the son of Man-ištiššu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) {56} years. Šar-kali-šarrī, the son of Narām-Suen, ruled for {(ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25} {(ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 24} years. {(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon.} Then {who was the king? Who was not the king?} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) who was the king? Who indeed was the king?} Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanűm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanűm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {4} of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) {3} years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Šu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for {15} {(ms. IB has instead:) 18} years. {11 kings; they ruled for 181 years} {(ms. S has instead:) 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) {197} years} {(mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Šu-Durul, have instead:) 9 kings; they ruled for {(ms. Su1 has:) 161} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 177} years}. {Then Agade was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Agade was abolished} and the kingship was taken to Unug.

297-307. In Unug, Ur-niĝin became king; he ruled for {7} {(mss. IB, S have instead:) 3} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 30} years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-niĝin, ruled for {6} {(ms. IB has instead:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 7} years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ilī ruled for {5} {(ms. IB has instead:) 20} years. {Ur-Utu ruled for 6} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) Ur-Utu, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7} years. {5 kings; they ruled for {30} {(ms. IB has instead:) 43} {(mss. P&s4;+Ha, S have instead:) 26} years} {(ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ilī, has instead:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) {47} years}. {Unug was defeated} {(ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished} and the kingship was taken to the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium.

308-334. In the {army} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land} of Gutium, at first {no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years}. Then {Inkišuš} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) ……} ruled for {6} {(ms. L1+Ni1 has instead:) 7} years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. {Šulme} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlagaš} ruled for 6 years. {Silulumeš} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Silulu} ruled for {6} {(ms. G has instead:) 7} years. {Inimabakeš ruled for 5} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Duga ruled for 6} years. {Igešauš ruled for 6} {(ms. Mi has instead:) Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3} years. Yarlagab ruled for {15} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 5} years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. {Yarla} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlangab (?)} ruled for 3 years. {Kurum} {(ms. L1+N1 has instead:) ……} ruled for {1} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 3} years. Apilkin ruled for 3 years. Lā-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Ḫablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Ḫablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tirigan (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for {(ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25 years}. Then the army of Gutium was {defeated} {(ms. TL has instead:) destroyed} and the kingship was taken to Unug.

335-340. In Unug, Utu-ḫeĝal became king; he ruled for {427 years, …… days} {(ms. IB has instead:) 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days}. 1 king; he ruled for {427 years, …… days} {(ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days} {(ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days}. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

341-354. In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Šulgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for {46} {(mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead:) 48} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 58} years. Amar-Suena, the son of Šulgi, ruled for {9} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25} years. Šu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for {9} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 7} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 20 + X} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 16} years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Šu-Suen, ruled for {24} {(mss. P5, Su1 have instead:) 25} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 15} {(ms. TL has instead:) 23 (?)} years. {4 kings; they ruled for 108 years} {(mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for {(ms. P5 has:) 117} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 120 + X} {(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 123} years}. {Then Urim was defeated} {(ms. P5 has instead:) Then the reign of Urim was abolished}. {(ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?).} The kingship was taken to Isin.

355-377. In Isin, Išbi-Erra became king; he ruled for {33} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 32} years. Šu-ilīšu, the son of Išbi-Erra, ruled for {20} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 10} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 15} years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Šu-ilīšu, ruled for {21} {(ms. Su1 has instead:) 25} years. Išme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for {(mss. P2, P5 have:) 20} {(ms. Mi has instead:) 18} years. Lipit-Eštar, the son of {Išme-Dagan} {(ms. P2 has instead:) Iddin-Dagan}, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) {11} years. Ur-Ninurta {(mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Iškur -- may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life --} ruled for (ms. P5 has:) {28} years. Būr-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Būr-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for {8} {(mss. P5, TL have instead:) 7} years. {(ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months.} Enlil-bāni ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. Ur-du-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. {(ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilišu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years.} 14 kings; they ruled for {203 years} {(ms. P5 has instead:) 225 years and 6 months}.

(mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of lines 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

378-431. A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kiš. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Ḫamazi.
16 lines missing
A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of {21} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 23} kings ruled for {125 years and 40 days} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 99 years}, once in the army of Gutium. A total of {11} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 16} kings ruled for {159} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 226} years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of {134} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 139} kings, who altogether ruled for {28876 + X} {(ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 3443 + X} years. 21.

 


Revision history

03.ix.1999: GZ, editor: adapting translation
04.xii.1999: JAB, editor: proofreading
08.xii.1999: GC, editor: SGML tagging
14.i.2000: ER, editor: proofreading SGML
14.i.2000: ER, editor: web publication
01.vi.2003: GC/JE, editor/technical developer: XML/TEI conversion