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PROXIMO ORIENTE ANTIGUO
MEGA Abzu: Guia de Recursos para el estudio del Próximo Oriente Antiguo en  Internet t [Website-OI] 2ND Mesopotamia [Modern Account][At ruu.nl]

 

 

 

 

 

Links  de Mesopotamia y Próximo Oriente
www.pheniciens.com/persos/tyr_siege.htm                               www.personal.us.es/cmaza/mesopotamia/canales.htm

 

                                                                                                                           

                                                                               I. Sumer      (  + - c. 3100-c. 2000 a.C.)

 
     

 

                         .                                             .           

 

     LOS SUMERIOS

 

Épica de  Gilgamesh

 Lengua Sumeria

Arte

 

Conexiones con la  India.

  .Ciudades-Estado 

 

     Matemáticas mesopotámicas en general

 

 

     Escritura cuneiforme

          

 

 

     Historia de Mesopotamia

         

 

 

     Contabilidad y aritmética mesopotámicas

 

     Álgebra mesopotámica

 

      Geometría mesopotámica

 

 
Escriba sumerio del periodo 
Protodinástico. Aprox. 2400 a.C.
Museo de Bagdad.      II. Akkad (c.2350-2200 a.C.)    
  .........  


 

  

       III. Babilonia (c.2000-600 a.C.)  
  ..................  

 

 

                    

 

 

 

  A Collection of Mesopotamian Laws, c. 2250 - 550 BCE [At this Site]

 

..Codigo de Hammurabi

 

  • ..Code of Hammarabi c.1780 BCE [This Site][Full Text, with introductions]
    Hammurabi (or Hammarapi)

1792-1750 BCE

..Code of Hammarabi c.1780 BCE [At EAWC][Full Text]

 

                                         Mitos de la Creación

 

   Babylonian Creation Myth [At Northpark]
A 12th century BCE version of a Sumerian account.
   The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Eliade Site]

 

Atrahasis: Human Creation [At Creighton] Atrahasis: Human Rebellion [At Creighton]

 

 

The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE and Notes [At CSUN] The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Creighton]
The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Gilgamesh] The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At Akkadian Language Page] The Enuma Elish (The Babylonian Creation Story), c. 2000 BCE [At AOL-Wiccan Site]
     Religión
Reports of the Magicians & Astrologers of Nineveh & Babylon, c. 2500 - 670 BCE [At this Site]    The Descent of Ishtar into the Netherworld [At Eliade Site] Ishtar's Descent into the Underworld [At AOL-Wiccan Site] ..

 

A Collection of Babylonian Prayers, c. 1600 BCE [At this Site] The Marriage of Nergal and Ereshkigal [At AOL-Wiccan Site] 2ND Babilonian and Assyrian Mythology FAQ [At UNH]

Pazuzu, un poderoso demonio sumerio habitante de los desiertos y con rasgos de diferentes animales, incluyendo una cola de escorpión. Aunque maligno, podía ser un importante aliado frente a las plagas y otros desastres naturales ( Roaf, 2000).

 

 

 

                                            IV. Kasitas (c.1600-1200 a.C.)

                                                       

 

 

Kudurru de  Eanna-Sum-Idina,(1.1200 a.C.). La inscripción inferior era una advertencia para los que osaran transgredir las fronteras del territorio delimitado.

                                              

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             Caldea/Neo-Babilonia (612-539 BCE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                    V. Hititas ( c.1600-1200 a.C.)

Hittite Literature in Translation [At Emory]

 

Hittite King List [At Hittite HP] List of Hittite Gods [At AOL-Wiccan Site]

 

The Code of the Nesilim, c. 1650-1500 BCE
Excerpts on sex and gender matters.
  Hititte and Hurrian Mythology [At UNH][Modern Account]

 

The Hittite Homepage [Website]

 

Hatti: Homeland of the Hittites
Includes pictures and texts.

 

 

Material Culture

 

The Hittites in Anatolia [At Crystal Links][Modern Summary]
Has a useful timeline for putting the various Mesopotamian empires into geographical and temporal relationship to each other.

 

       

                                                    VI. Fenicia (950 BCE)

   
 
ANE Matematicas y Astronomía Género y  Sexualidad  
Caldea/Neo-Babilonia (612-539 BCE) Ciudades sirias: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar
Cartago: El imperio Punico ANE Artes y Arquitectura  

 

Common Issues: Mesopotamia/Egipto/Hebros/Griegos

                                                             


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                                                           VII Asiria (c.1350- 612 BCE)

 Dios otorgando el Urushdaur (Sumeria)

 ...    Map: Assyrian Empires [At Nineveh.com]

 

..Assyrian Army Attacks at City [At Northpark] Tiglatpileser I (r. 1115-1077 BCE): Inscription [At Northpark]

 

 Tiglath Pileser I, King of Assyria, B.C  (r. 1115-1077 BCE): Inscription [At MUniv]

 

.Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (d. 823 BCE) [At M UNiv]
Each of its four sides is divided into five compartments of sculpture representing the tribute brought to the Assyrian King by vassal princes, Jehu of Israel being among the number. Shalmaneser, whose annals and conquests are recorded upon it, was the son of Assur-natsir-pal, and died in 823 BCE. [Note this king has now been renumber as III rather than II!]

 

.Letter of Pabi, Prince of Lachish, to Akhnaton, King of Kemet (i.e. Egypt), circa 1350 BCE.  [At this Site]

 

.The Code of the Assyrians, c. 1075 BCE
Excerpts on sex and gender matters.

 

 

 

 

         Account of Revolt of the City of Suru of Bit-Halupe 7th Cent BCE [At CCNY]

 

  .Greek Reports of Babylonia, Chaldea, and Assyria [At this Site]
Includes accounts of Semiramis and Nitocris, Marriage customs, and the Persian conquest.

 

     2ND The Great Ashurbanipal [At Aldawood]
Ashurbanipal (Sardanapalus)(r.668-626 BCE). Collected a libary of 22,000 clay tablets which was discovered in the late 19th century.

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   Ciudades Sirias: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar

Ebla was an ancient city in Syria at Tell Mardikh. The palace library, with thousands of tablets, was excavated by an Italian expedition in1975. These showed that Ebla had been a major commercial center. The tablets, written in a Canaanite language (Eblaite), date from c.2500 BCE. Exacavations over the past century have revealed more and more about Syrian cities.

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    Fenicia 950 BCE

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Cartago: El Imperio púnico

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ANE Arts and Architecture

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ANE Mathematics and Astronomy

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Gender and Sexuality

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Modern Perspectives on Mesopotamia

  • text

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Common Issues: Mesopotamian/Egyptian/Hebrew/Greek History

There are a number of problems in the various proposed chronologies of ancient Mediterranean cultures. One that most students might notice is a diversity in the dates given for Egyptian and Mesopotamian states, periods, and monarchs. The variety of methods used to ascertain dates leads to rival schemes with dates which vary by nearly a century. There is also a much large inconsistency claimed by credentialed scholars whose motives seem, however, to derive from Biblical literalism.

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