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HISTORIA DEL MUNDO ANTIGUO I PRÓXIMO ORIENTE Y EGIPTO

Autor: VÁZQUEZ HOYS ANA MARIA
Editorial SANZ Y TORRES
Asignatura: HISTORIA ANTIGUA UNIVERSAL
1ª - 2003 Edición
277 páginas.
ISBN: 8496094243
Tamaño:
Idioma: ESPAÑOL

 

“Los esfuerzos seculares que forzaron los secretos de los restos y las ruinas de la antigua Mesopotamia no han sido ni decepcionantes ni estériles. Desde los descubrimientos ininterrumpidos de un número prodigioso de vestigios enterrados y de documentos recuperados y descifrados uno a uno, durante unos ciento cincuenta años, se ha desplegado ante nuestros ojos, y resucitado de un olvido varias veces milenario, una larga historia insospechada, y una civilización grandiosa completamente inesperada”. 

J. BOTTERÓ

 

 

 

SUMER. LOS SUMERIOS

 

<<< 1<< 1. HASSUNA<<1.JEMDER NARS << 1.URUK <<1.OBEID << 2 << 3  << 4<<  5<< 6 << 7

El mercado de Antigüedades

Bibliografia de Inanna

http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NIP/Nippur.html

 

Orante de Eshnunna

 

El comienzo de la Cultura Sumeria y su ubicación geográfica

 

Poco se sabe de los primeros habitantes del valle situado entre los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, en el actual Iraq,  salvo que tenían una cultura agrícola desarrollada y una lengua  aglutinante escrita en caracteres cuneiformes, que se formó a partir de una serie de establecimientos pre y protohistóricos.

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium

 

               

NEOLITICO 

    o

MESOLÍTICO

                 

 

  JARMO ( 6750- 6500 a.C.)

Aerial view of Qalat Jarmo

JARMO (NORTHEASTERN IRAQ) [7TH MILLENNIUM BC]

Stone foundations of house and stone pavement at Jarmo

 

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NORTE 1.HASSUNA (5.800-5500 a.C.)

HASSUNAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5750 - 5050 BC]

2.SAMARRA(5600-5000 a.C.)

SAMARRAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4800 BC]

3.TELL HALAF (5500-4500 a.C.)

HALAF CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4700 BC]

SUR 1.EL OBEID o Eridú  500-3.750 a.C.

10. ERIDU PERIOD (SUMER) [FIRST PHASE PROTO UBAID]
11. HAJJI MUHAMMED PERIOD (SECOND PHASE PROTO UBAID)
12. PRE-LITERATE UBAID CULTURE (MESOPOTAMIA)

Fin Neolítico

Principio Calcolítico

2.URUK( 3750-3150 a.C.)

URUK (ARABIC WARKA) [BIBLICAL ERECH] (PROTO URBAN PERIOD)

3.Jemdat Nasr ( 3150-2900 a.C.)

 

JEMDET NASR PERIOD (SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA) [3100 - 2900 BC]

PERIODO DE URUK

Ancient Uruk (Biblical Erech) [Arabic Warka]

Known today by the Arabic name of Warka and in the Old Testament as Erech. When the city was occupied the waters of the Euphrates River flowed close by; today the river flows some 12 miles distant, having shifted its course through the millennia.

Uruk was one of the major city-states of Sumer. Excavations by German archaeologists from 1912 onwards have revealed a series of very important structures and deposits of the 4th millennium BC and the site has given its name to the period that suceeeded the Ubaid Culture and preceeded the Jemdet Nasr Period. The Uruk period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia in the Early Dynastic period. It is not always fully realized how unique the site of Uruk was at this time: it was by far the largest settlement, with the most impressive buildings and with the earliest evidence of writing. It would be true to say that Uruk was Mesopotamia's and the world's first city. It seems to have started as two separate settlements, Kullaba and Eanna, which coalesced in the Uruk Period to form a town covering circa 80 hectares; at the height of its development in the Early Dynastic period the city walls were circa 9.5 kilometres long, enclosing a massive 450 hectares and may have housed some 50,000 people. In the heart of the city are two large temple complexes: the Anu sanctuary, belonging originally to Kullaba and the Eanna sanctuary, dedicated to Inanna, the Goddess of Love. Both these complexes have revealed several successive temple structures of the Uruk Period including the White Temple in the Anu sanctuary and the Limestone and Pillar Temples in the Eanna sanctuary.

A characteristic form of decoration involves the use of clay cones with painted tops pressed into the mud plaster facing the buildings - a technique known as clay cone mosaic. On the northwest side of the Eanna sanctuary is a Ziggurat laid out by Ur-Nammu of Ur in the Ur III Period (late 3rd millennium BC). Evidence from the deep trench excavated in the Eanna sanctuary has cast much light on the developments of the Uruk period. The most important of these was undoubtedly the development of writing. The earliest clay tablets appear in late Uruk levels; they are simple labels and lists with pictographic symbols. Tablets from slightly later levels of the Jemdet Nasr phase show further developments towards the cuneiform script of the Early Dynastic Period.

The city remained important throughout the 3rd millennium BC but declined in importance during the later part of that period. It remained in occupation throughout the following two millennia down to the Parthian Period but only as a minor centre. Uruk was the home of the epic hero Gilgamesh, now thought to be a real king of the city's first dynasty and Uruk played an important role in the mythology of the Mesopotamian civilizations to the end ...... (AHSFC)

Selected Excerpt on Uruk

Uruk Expansion: Cross Cultural
Exchange in Early Mesopotamian Civilization

Guillermo Algaze [JSTOR] Current Anthropology
Volume 30 : Number 5 (Dec 1989) [Pages 571-608

 

 

 
Uruk Ur Ubaid Culture Halaf Culture Women
Akad Babylon Lagash Nebuchadnezzar Gilgamish
Hammurabi Cylinder Seals Old Babylonian period Old Assyrian Period Nimrud
Nineveh Neo-Assyrian period Neo Babylonian period Royal Graves of Ur Scribes in ancient Mesopotamia

 

 

Más información en  iraqipages.com/iraq_mesopotamia/ ancient.htm


ESTABLECIMIENTOS NEOLITICOS y CALCOLITICOS

1. PPNB TAHUNIAN PERIOD (PALESTINE) [7TH MILLENNIUM BC]
2. JARMO (NORTHEASTERN IRAQ) [7TH MILLENNIUM BC]
3. CATAL HOYUK (ANATOLIA) [6700 - 5650 BC]
4. DABAGHIYAH CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ PLAIN)
5. HASSUNAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5750 - 5050 BC]
6. YARMUKIAN CULTURE (ISRAEL/JORDAN) [5600 - 5000 BC]
7. HALAF CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4700 BC]
8. SAMARRAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4800 BC]
9. BADARIAN CULTURE (EGYPT) [5000 - 4000 BC]
10. ERIDU PERIOD (SUMER) [FIRST PHASE PROTO UBAID]
11. HAJJI MUHAMMED PERIOD (SECOND PHASE PROTO UBAID)
12. PRE-LITERATE UBAID CULTURE (MESOPOTAMIA)
13. TELEILAT GHASSUL CULTURE (URBANISM) [JORDAN]
14. AMRATIAN CULTURE (NAQADAH I) [EGYPT] (4000 - 3500 BC)
15. TEPE GAWRA PERIOD (NORTH MESOPOTAMIA) [CONTEMPORARY URUK]
16. URUK (ARABIC WARKA) [BIBLICAL ERECH] (PROTO URBAN PERIOD)
17. GERZEAN CULTURE (NAQADAH II) [EGYPT] (3500 - 3100 BC)
18. JEMDET NASR PERIOD (SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA) [3100 - 2900 BC]