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The Divided Kingdom

Israel:  Ahaziah to the End
Judah:  Jehoram to Hezekiah

Egypt Judah  Israel Syria/
    Ahaziah 852-851 1 Kgs 22:51-2 Kgs 1:18 fell to his death

Ascension of Elijah 2 Kgs 2:1-25

Amman Citadel Inscription (Ammonite) 9c COS 2.24; p. 139 The god Milcom speaks about a temple or the citadel itself
Amman Citadel

ammcit2.jpg (57348 bytes)

  Jehoshaphat fights Moab with Joram 2 Kings 3

Jehoram--(married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab)  851-843/42 2Kgs 8:16-24//2 Chr 21:2-20

Edom (SE) and Libnah (W) gained their independence 2 Kgs 8:20-22//2 Chr 21:8-10

Joram  851-842/41 2 Kgs 3:1-8:15

Elisha 2 Kgs 3:13-8:15



Joram and Jezebel were  killed by Jehu

Bir-Hadad II of Damascus 844-842 (killed by Hazael)

Hazael of Damascus 844-800

  Ahaziah killed by Jehu 843/42-
842/41 2 Kgs 8:25-9:29//Chr 22:1-22:9
Jehu 842/41-815/14 2 Kgs 9:1-10:36

Tel Dan Inscription

BETHDAUD.JPG (256348 bytes)

Tel Dan inscription [of Hazael?] mentions killing of [Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel and [Ahaziah] son of [Jehoram ki]ng of the House of David COS 2.39; pp.  161-162. In 2 Kings 9-10 Jehu kills these two kings


  Athaliah 842/41-835 2 Kgs 11:1-20//2 Chr 22:10-23:21

kills many members of royal killed; deposed and killed in bloody coup

Tribute of Jehu to Shalmaneser III 841 ANET 280-281

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Black Obelisk COS 2.113F; pp. 269-270 Click here for text.  ANET 278-281

Jehu kneels before Shalmaneser III:

BLACKOB.JPG (98212 bytes)




  "The tribute of Jehu, the man of Bit-Humri (Omri)...."  

SHALTHE3.JPG (470762 bytes)
Shalmaneser III


Kurba'il Statue-COS 2.113E, p.  268 mentions Jehu.  Click here for text.

Calah Bulls mention Jehu.  Click here for text.

Marble slab mentions Jehu.  Click here for text

Sheshonq III 825-773


Sheshonq V

23. Dynasty 818-715

Pedubastis I Theban king 818-793

Iuput I 804-783 Theban king

Joash 842/1-802/1
2 Kgs 11:21-12:21//2 Chr 24:1-27 (hidden by Jehosheba, sister of Ahaziah; her husband [?] Jehoiada put Joash on the throne); Joash was assassinated by his servants

Ashyahu inscription: Just as Ashyahu (Joash) commanded you to give by the hand of Zechariah silver of Tarshish to the House of Yahweh. Three sheqels. 9-7c, COS 2.50; pp.  174-175

SHEQEL.JPG (376543 bytes)

Ashyahu Inscription
According to a 2005 Israeli indictment, this inscription is a forgery.  It has previously been authenticated by some of the world's premier epigraphers.

Widow's Petition

Joash paid tribute to Hazael 2 Kgs 12:18

New Joash Inscription (forgery?)

Click thumbnail for bigger image

...son of Ahaziah.  And I made the...in the land and in the desert and in all the cities of Judah to make the silver of the holy things much to acquire hewn stone and cypresses and bronze of Edom to do the work in faithfulness and I worked on the damage to the temple and the walls round about and the side chambers and the lattices and the staircases and the ledges and the doors and this day will be a statute because the work prospered.  May YHWH ordain blessing for his people.  Translation by Peter Williams of Tyndale House, Cambridge

Tell Fekheriye inscription, Hadad-Yith`i, late 9c, COS 2.34; pp.  153-154 Assyrian and Aramaic writing.



Hazael Booty Inscriptions, 2nd half of 9c, COS 2.40; pp.  162-163

Melqart Inscription 9c COS 2.33; pp.  152-153 Bir-hadad, son of Atarhamek, probably not from Damascus, made a vow to Melqart

MELQART.JPG (33229 bytes)





Assyria:  Shamshi-Adad V 823-811 married to Semiramis ANEP 442

SHMADAD5.JPG (418110 bytes)

Shamshi-Adad V




 Marduk-balassu-iqbi, king of Babylon 818-813 taken to Nineveh and flayed by Shamshi-Adad V

Baba-aha-iddina 812 Babylonian king


  Kuntillet `Ajrud: I bless you by Yahweh of Samaria and by his "asherah."

KUNPEN2.JPG (35716 bytes)

Jehoahaz 819-804/3 2 Kgs 13:1-9
Samaria besieged by Aram
Kilamuwa 840-830 ANET 500-501, 654-55 2nd half of 9c

Kilamuwa Inscription, COS 2.30; pp.  147-148 ca. 830-820 BCE.  Claims to surpass his predecessors
Adad-Nirari III 810-783; his mother was Semiramis

ANEP 444; COS 2.114A;  pp.  272-277


Assyrian Eponym Canon--805-732:  COS 1.136; pp. 465-466

Sheshonq IV Theban king  783-777

Osorkon III Theban king 777-749

25. Dynasty (Napatans--
Kushites) 780-656

Alara 780-760

Pimay (Pimiu) 773-767

Amaziah assassinated 805/04-776/75 2 Kgs 14:1-20//2 Chr 25:1-28


defeats Edom; defeated and taken captive by Jehoash





Jehoash 805-790 
2 Kgs 13:10-25

Tribute of Jehoash to Adad-nirari III 796

Defeats Arameans and attacks Jerusalem; captured Amaziah

Elisha dies
2 Kgs 13:14-21 

Ben-Hadad III (2 Kgs 13:3-5--the Lord provided a deliver = Adad-nirari III); defeated three times by Jehoash

Zakur king of Hamath and Luaš, 800 BCE,  ANET 501-502, 655-656; COS 2.35; p.  155 Baal-shamayn spoke to me through seers and diviners; refers to Barhadad son of Hazael

El-Kerak Inscription Written by Mesha of Moab or his father

Adad-Nirari III defeated Hazael's son Ben-Hadad; received tribute from Jehoash of Israel in 796

Joash.jpg (132914 bytes)

Adad-Nirari from Tell Rimah temple

Rimah Stela.  Click here for text.

Calah Orthostat Slab.  Click here for text.


Defeated Arameans in 802

Takelot III (23) 754-734

Kashta (25) 760-747


25. Dynasty  -- Kushite kings from Sudan rule as pharaohs. 

Piye (Piankhy-Piye) 747-716

Amun enthroned; Piankhi standing


 (Peftjauawybast) 747-716 Nubian dynasty

Azariah/Uzziah 788/87-736/35 2 Kgs 14:21-22; 15:1-7//2 Chr 26:1-23

Defeated Philistines and Arab tribes


Ahiyaw servant of Uzziah

Shebserv.jpg (48840 bytes)

Shebnaiah servant of Uzziah

















Uzziah fought with Tiglath-pileser III in 743 ANET 282-283


UZZIAH.JPG (45793 bytes)
"Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah king of Judah.  Do not open."  Dates from time long after Uzziah


Jotham 758/57-742/41 2 Kgs 15:32-38//2 Chr 27:1-9

Jeroboam II 790-750/49 2 Kgs 14:23-29

Samaria Ostraca 8 c

SAMARIA.JPG (30621 bytes)


Balaam Inscription 
mid 8 c; COS 2.27, pp. 140-145

BALTXT.JPG (144340 bytes)

1 Chr 5:17 census of Transjordan

Samaria ivories

Amos ca. 760

Hosea ca. 750-725

Zechariah 750/49 2 Kgs 15:8-12
(6 months; assassinated by Shallum; end of Jehu dynasty)

Shallum 749 2 Kgs 15:13-15 (one month; assassinated by Menahem)



Menahem 749-38  2 Kgs 15:16-23

Tribute of Menahem to Tiglath-pileser III 740, 738 2 Kgs 15:19 ANET, 283

Sefire Treaty between Barga'yah, king of KTK and Mati-ilu, king of Arpad mid 8 c,  ANET 503-504, 659-661; COS 2.82; pp.  213-217

SEFIRE.JPG (64560 bytes)



















Tiglath-pileser III receives homage

Tiglath-pileser III

Assyrian troops
attack a city

Assyrian campaigns
in 9-8 centuries

Shalmaneser IV Assyrian king 783-773 COS 2.116; pp.  283-284


Ashur-Dan III 772-755
Assur-Nirari V 754-745--treaty with Mati-ilu in Sefire Treaty

Babylon:  Eriba-Marduk 770
Nabu-shuma-ishkun, king of Babylon  760-748 

 Nabu-nasir (Nabonassar), king of Babylon 747-734


















Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) Assyrian king 745-27 
ANET 282-284; ANEP 366, 445; COS 2.117A-117G; pp.  284-292

Campaign against Hamath, Damascus, Tyre, Byblos, and Samaria 738

Click here for text of his inscriptions mentioning Israel

Pulu was his throne name when he became king of Babylon in 729

Osorkon IV (So?) 730-15 sent commander-
in-chief to assist Gaza against Sargon in 720


Rudamun (23) 734-731

Iuput II (23) 731-720

24. Dynasty at Sais in western delta 727-715
Tefnakhte 727-720 (= "So" in 2 Kgs 17:4)

Ahaz 742/41-726 2 Kgs 16:1-20//2 Chr 28:1-27

Belonging to Ahaz,  [son of] Jehotham, king of Judah

Belonging to Ushna, the servant of Ahaz


Ahaz (Jehoahaz) sends tribute to Tiglath-pileser III (first Judean king mentioned in Assyrian Annals; cf. Tell Dan and Ashyahu Inscriptions) ANET 282

Pekahiah 738-736 2 Kgs 15:23-26; assassinated by Pekah

Pekah 750?-732/31 2 Kgs 15:27-31
Syro-Ephraimite War (allied with Rezin)

deposed by Tiglath-pileser III and assassinated by Hoshea









Hoshea 732/31-722 2 Kgs 17:1-6 ANET 284 (confirmed on throne by Tiglath-pileser III)
refused to pay tribute to Shalmaneser V
Belonging to Abday servant of Hoshea.

Zinjirli = Sam'al

Panammu I = Hadad Inscription, mid 8c, COS 2.36; pp.  156-158

Rezin, (Rakhianu) king of Damascus

Panammu II (died 735-32) Inscription COS 2,.37; pp. 158-161

Barrakib, son of Panammu II 733-732 ANET 501, 655; ANEP 281, 460

Rakib.jpg (167580 bytes)

Picture of Bar-rakib above, inscription below

BARRAKIB.JPG (67494 bytes)

Panammu II died fighting for Tiglath-Pileser III


PUL2.JPG (260583 bytes)

TIGMAP.JPG (226949 bytes)

Tiglath-pileser's campaigns

TIGDEPOR.JPG (259569 bytes)

Tiglath-pileser's deportations

Campaign against Tyre and Gaza 734



Campaign against Tyre, Damascus (Rezin), and Israel (Pekah) 733

Babylon:  Nabu-nadin-zeri 733-732

Nabu-shuma-ukin II 732 assassinated his predecessor; ruled one month

Damascus (Hazael) captured; Israel loses Gilead, Galilee, and Dor, which became Assyrian provinces 732

Nabu-mukin-zeri 731-729 deposed his predecessor







Osorkon IV supported Gaza revolt 720

Egyptians defeated at Raphia

Sent tribute to Sargon II


Hezekiah 726-697/96 2 Kgs 18:1-20:21//2 Chr 29:1-32:33

Hezekiah (Israeli data on this king)

Hezekiah's seal

HEZSEAL.JPG (208519 bytes)

Belonging to Hezekiah, [son of] A[haz], king of Judah

Khirbet el-Qom inscription COS 2.52; pp.  179 Blessed was Uriyahu O Yahweh, and from his enemies, by his asherah, he saved him.

KOMDRAW.JPG (19736 bytes)

Ashdod revolt, under Aziru,  supported by Judah, opposed by Isaiah (chap 20)

Defense wall in Jerusalem

lamelek jar handle

Beersheba altar dismantled in Hezekiah's reform



Conquest of Samaria 722

Second attack on Samaria and exile of inhabitants 720 ANET 284-285

27,290 captured



Court Order from Samaria COS 3.122; pp.  270-271 repayment of a loan for work animals--shows mixed population of Samaria.  2 Kgs 17:24, 29-30



Ishtar Seal from Shechem
dating destruction to 724


Sarg2e.jpg (71596 bytes)

Sargon II besieges Ekron

Sarg2h.jpg (59423 bytes)
Sargon II

Sargon2.jpg (104974 bytes)
Sargon, followed by an attendant, before Ashur

Sargonto.jpg (164916 bytes)
Sargon (L) Sennacherib (R)

Sargon II

Nimrud Inscription:  "I
brought into Samaria
people from countries
conquered by my hands."


Iaubi'di, king of Hamath, revolted vs. Sargon II in 720

711  Assyria crushed rebellion in Ashdod led by Aziru, Akhimetu, and Yamani (possible Judean involvement; ANET 287)

Shalmaneser V 726-722 Assyrian king

Babylonian Chronicle COS 1.137; pp.  467-468; ANET 30-307  For text of mention of Samaria click here.

Incirli Stela website

Sargon II 722-705 ANET 284-287
"I led away as prisoners 27,290 inhabitants of [the town of the Samarians]."

ANEP 446; 
COS 1.141; pp.  472-473
COS 2.118A-118J; pp.  293-300 Click here for the text of his inscriptions mentioning Israel and Judah

SARGASH2.JPG (65520 bytes)
Sargon stela from

deposed "usurper of Samaria and the whole land of the house of Omri."  Bull Inscription

 Maduk-apla-iddina II 721-710 (Merodach-baladan), king of Babylon ANEP 454 2 Kgs 20:12-19; Isaiah 39

Marduka.jpg (238532 bytes)
Merodach-Baladan and his smaller vassal

Revuelta de Siria, Samaria, y Gaza suppressed; defeat of Egyptians at Raphia 720

710 Asiria bajo Sargon II captura Babilonia y  fuerza a Merodach Baladan II al exilio

Nueva capital en Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad)

Egypt Judah  Israel Siria/