Lista de sistemas de escritura
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
See Writing system for more information about the different kinds of writing systems. See also grapheme, a technical term used to refer to the individual base constituents of any given writing system.
The usual name of the script is given first (and bolded); the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows (in brackets), particularly in the case where the language name differs from the script name. Other informative or qualifying annotations for the script may also be provided.
Pictographic/ideographic writing systems
Ideographic scripts (in which graphemes are ideograms representing concepts or ideas, rather than a specific word in a language), and pictographic scripts (in which the graphemes are iconic pictures) are not thought to be able to express all that can be communicated by language. That is, no full writing system can be completely pictographic or ideographic; it must be able to refer directly to a language in order to faithfully represent that language. Hieroglyphs were commonly thought to be ideographic before they were translated, and to this day Chinese is often erroneously said to be ideographic.
Although a few pictographic or ideographic scripts exist today, there is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondance between symbol and language. In some cases, only the author of a text can read it with any certainty, and it may be said that they are interpreted rather than read. Such scripts often work best as mnemonic aids for oral texts, or as outlines that will be fleshed out in speech.
Logographic writing systems
Note that no logographic script is comprised solely of logograms. All contain graphemes which represent phonetic (sound-based) elements as well. These phonetic elements may be used on their own (to represent, for example, grammatical inflections or foreign words), or may serve as phonetic complements to a logogram (used to specify the sound of a logogram which might otherwise represent more than one word). In the case of Chinese, the phonetic element is built into the logogram itself; in Egyptian and Mayan, many glyphs are purely phonetic, while others function as either logograms or phonetic elements, depending on context. For this reason, many such scripts may be more properly referred to as logosyllabic or complex scripts; the terminology used is largely a product of custom in the field, and is to an extent arbitrary.
- Anatolian "hieroglyphs" — Luwian
- Cuneiform — Sumerian, Akkadian, other Semitic languages, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hurrian, and Urartian
- Hanzi — Chinese, Japanese (called Kanji), Korean (called Hanja), Vietnamese (called Chu nom, now obsolete)
- Mayan — Chorti, Yucatec, and other Classic Maya languages
- Yi (classical) — various Yi/Lolo languages
Logographies based on Chinese
- Afaka — Ndjuká
- Alaska script — Central Yup'ik
- Cherokee — Cherokee
- Cypriot — Mycenean Greek
- Hiragana — Japanese
- Japanese Sign Language syllabary — Japanese Sign Language
- Katakana — Japanese
- Kpelle — Kpelle
- Linear B — Mycenean Greek
- Nü Shu — Yao
- Vai — Vai
- Yi (modern) — various Yi/Lolo languages
Part syllabic, part alphabetic scripts
In these systems, some consonant-vowel combinations are written as syllables, but others are written as consonant plus vowel. In the case of Old Persian, all vowels were written regardless, so it was effectively a true alphabet despite its syllabic component. In Japanese a similar system plays a minor role in foreign borrowings; for example, [tu] is written [to]+[u], and [ti] as [te]+[i].
Note that there need not be (and rarely is) a one-to-one correspondence between the graphemes of the script and the phonemes of a language. A phoneme may be represented only by some combination or string of graphemes, the same phoneme may be represented by more than one distinct grapheme, the same grapheme may stand for more than one phoneme, or some combination of all of the above.
Segmental scripts may be further divided according to the types of phonemes they typically record:
- Arabic — Arabic, Azeri, Baluchi, Kashmiri, Pashtun, Persian, Punjabi, Sindhi, Uighur, Urdu, and the languages of many other Muslim peoples
- Dhives akuru — Dhivehi
- Estrangelo — Syriac
- Hebrew Square Script — Hebrew, Yiddish, and other Jewish languages
- Nabataean — the Nabataeans of Petra
- Pahlavi — Middle Persian
- Phoenician — Phoenician and other Caananite languages
- South Arabian — Sabaic, Qatabanic, Himyaritic, and Hadhramautic
- Samaritan (Old Hebrew) — Aramaic, Arabic, and Hebrew
- Tifinagh — Tuareg
- Ugaritic — Ugaritic, Hurrian
Linear nonfeatural alphabets
Linear alphabets are composed of lines on a surface, such as ink on paper.
- Arabic (for Kurdish) — Kurdish
- Armenian — Armenian
- Avestan — Avestan language
- Beitha Kukju — Albanian
- Cyrillic — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian language, etc.
- Eclectic Shorthand
- Elbasan — Albanian
- Fraser — Lisu
- Gabelsberger shorthand
- Georgian — Georgian and Mingrelian. Variants include Mkhedruli, Khutsuri, Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri
- Glagolitic — Old Church Slavonic
- Gothic — Gothic
- Greek — Greek
- International Phonetic Alphabet
- Latin — Latin, and the basis for many European, African, American, and Pacific alphabets
- Manchu — Manchu
- Mandaic — Mandaic dialect of Aramaic
- Mongolian — Mongolian
- Neo-Tifinagh — Tamazight
- N'Ko — Malinke, Bambara, Dyula
- Ogham (pronounced [oːm]) — Gaelic, Britannic, Pictish
- Hungarian Runes — Hungarian
- Old Italic alphabet — Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian
- Old Permic (or Abur) — Komi
- Orkhon "runes" — Turkic
- Osmanya — Somali
- Runic alphabet — Germanic languages
- Ol Cemet' — Santali
- Tai Lue — Lue
- Vah — Bassa
- Zhuyin (Bopomofo) — used as a phonetic gloss in Taiwan, and as an alphabet for several Formosan languages
Featural linear alphabets
- Gregg Shorthand
- Hangul — Korean
- Shavian alphabet
- Tengwar (a fictional script)
- Visible Speech (a phonetic script)
Manual alphabets are frequently found as parts of sign languages. The are not used for writing per se, but for spelling out words while signing.
(list to be completed)
Other non-linear alphabets
These are other alphabets composed of something other than lines on a surface.
- Braille (Unified) — an embossed alphabet for the visually-impaired, used with some extra letters to transcribe the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic alphabets, as well as Chinese
- Braille (Korean)
- Braille (American) (defunct)
- New York Point — a defunct alternative to Braille
- International maritime signal flags (both alphabetic and ideographic)
- Morse code (International) — a trinary code of dashes, dots, and silence, whether transmitted by electricity, light, or sound)
- Morse Code (American) (defunct)
- Semaphore — made by moving hand-held flags)
An abugida, or alphasyllabary, is a segmental script in which vowel sounds are denoted by diacritical marks or other systematic modification of the consonants. Generally, however, if a single letter is understood to have an inherent unwritten vowel, and only vowels other than this are written, then the system is classified as an abugida regardless of whether the vowels look like diacritics or full letters. The vast majority of abugidas are found from India to Southeast Asia and belong historically to the Brāhmī family.
- Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics — Cree syllabics (for Cree), Inuktitut syllabics (for Inuktitut), and other variants for Ojibwe, Carrier, Blackfoot, and other languages of Canada
- Ethiopic — Amharic, Ge’ez, Oromo, Tigrigna
- Kharoṣṭhī — Gandhari, Sanskrit
- Pitman Shorthand
- Pollard — Miao
- Sorang Sompeng — Sora
- Thaana — Dhivehi
- Thomas Natural Shorthand
- Varang Kshiti — Ho
Abugidas of the Brāhmī family
- Brāhmī — Prakrit, Sanskrit
- Batak — Toba and other Batak languages
- Baybayin — Tagalog, Ilokano, and Pangasinan
- Bengali — Bengali, Assamese
- Burmese — Burmese, Karen languages, Mon
- Dehong — Dehong Dai
- Devanāgarī — Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi, Nepali, and many other languages of northern India
- Gujarāti — Gujarāti, Kachchi
- Gurmukhi — Punjabi
- Kaganga — Rejang
- Kannada — Kannada, Tulu
- Lontara’ — Buginese, Makassar, and Mandar
- Modi — Marathi
- Phags-pa — Mongolian, Chinese, and other languages of the Yuan Dynasty Mongol Empire
- Ranjana — Newari
- Syloti Nagri
- Tagbanwa — Palawan
- Tai Dam
Final consonant-diacritic abugidas
In at least one abugida, not only the vowel but any syllable-final consonant is written with a diacritic. That is, representing [o] with an under-ring, and final [l] with an over-bar, [sol] would written as s̥̄.
In a couple abugidas, the vowels are basic, and the consonants secondary. If no consonant is written in Pahawh Hmong, it is understood to be /k/; consonants are written after the vowel they precede in speech. In Japanese Braille, the vowels but not the consonants have independent status, and it is the vowels which are modified when the consonant is y or w.
Undeciphered systems thought to be writing
These writing systems have not been deciphered. In some cases, such as Meroitic, the sound values of the glyphs are known, but the texts still cannot be read because the language is not understood. In others, such as the Phaistos Disc, there is little hope of progress unless further texts are found. Several of these systems, such as Epi-Olmec and Indus, are claimed to have been deciphered, but these claims have not been confirmed by independent researchers. In Vinča and other cases the system, although symbolic, may turn out to not be writing.
- Byblos — the city of Byblos
- Canarian — Guanche?
- Epi-Olmec (apparently logosyllabic)
- Indus script — Indus Valley Civilization
- Khipu — Inca Empire (very possibly not writing)
- Khitan small script — Khitan
- Linear A (a syllabary) — Minoan
- Meroitic (an abugida) — Meroë
- Mixtec — Mixtec (perhaps pictographic)
- Vinča (very possibly not writing)
- Olmec — Olmec civilization (possibly the oldest Mesoamerican script)
- Phaistos Disc (a unique text)
- Proto-Elamite — Elam (nearly as old as Sumerian)
- Rongorongo — Rapa Nui (perhaps a syllabary)
- Wadi el-Ħôl & Proto-Sinaitic (likely an abjad)
- Zapotec — Zapotec (another old Mesoamerican script)
A number of manuscripts from comparable recent past may be written in an invented writing system, a cipher of an existing writing system or may only be an hoax.