Bibliografía muy general...
INFO (Adressen- und Veranstaltungsliste der deutschsprachigen Ägyptologie, ab 1983)
W.R. Dawson/E.P. Uphill, Who was who in Egyptology?, London 1972
J. Assmann, Ägyptologie im Kontext der Geisteswissenschaften, in: P.V. Weingart, Die sog. Geisteswissenschaften: Innenansichten, Frankfurt a.M. 1990, 335 ff.
I. Pratt, Ancient Egypt. Sources of Information in the New York Public Library, New York 1925, mit Supplement 1941
J.M.A. Janssen, später M.
Heerma van Voss; J.J. Janssen;
J.M.A. Janssen, später M. Heerma van Voss; J.J. Janssen;
L.M.J. Zonhoven, Annual Egyptological Bibliography, Leiden (seit 1947)
Burkard/G. Rudnitzki, Fachkatalog Ägyptologie, Heidelberg 1982
Beinlich-Seeber, Ägyptologische Bibliographie 1822-1946, Teil I+II,
W. Helck/E. Otto, W. Westendorf (Hrsg.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie, 7 Bde., Wiesbaden 1972-1992
der Orientalistik, 1. Abt., Bd. 1 und 8, Leiden I.Shaw/P.Nicholson,
British Museum Dictionnary of Ancient Egypt, London 1995
HdO I, 1, Leiden 1959, 18-88
W. Schenkel, Einführung in die altägyptische Sprachwissenschaft, Darmstadt 1990
VIDA, PROSPERIDAD y SALUD (Ankh, udja, seneb
La Piedra de Rosetta. Museo Británico
H. Ranke, Die altägyptischen
Personennamen, 3 Bde., Glückstadt 1935-1977
A. Erman/H. Grapow (Hrsg.), Wörterbuch
der ägyptischen Sprache, 7 Bde., Berlin und
Schneider, Lexikon der Pharaonen: Die altägyptischen Könige von der Frühzeit
bis zur Römerherrschaft, Zürich 1994
A. Erman/H. Grapow (Hrsg.), Wörterbuch
der ägyptischen Sprache, Die Belegstellen, 5 Bde., Berlin und Leipzig 1940-1959
D. Shennum, English-Egyptian
Index of Faulkner's Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Malibu 1977
J. von Beckerath, Handbuch
der ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 20, 1984
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|The Enchanting Time of Famous Kings!|
Queen of Sheba - The 18th Dynasty and Queen Pharaoh Hatshepsut|
also `Solomon, Hatshepsut and Senenmut|
A New Proposal for the Queen of Sheba Visit and the Punt Reliefs at Deir el Bahari
As Damien has recently published his findings where he shows that the crucial point of the Hatshepsut/Queen of Sheba equation is that it must be tied to the principal diplomatic event of Solomon's reign - his marriage of an Egyptian princess, daughter of Thutmose II. The quantity of gifts exchanged give every indication of an additional dowry or down payment in an ally situation as Solomon, now ruling a substantial kingdom, is courted by the Egyptians. According to Damien's reconstruction `Shishak', Thutmose II, was the father of the princess who was married to Solomon and he was the husband of Hatshepsut. Thutmose II did in fact campaign in Palestine. [Likewise Thutmose III was later also called Shishak.] That is the reason how it could be that the Queen who visited Jerusalem was "the mother-in-law of Solomon."
Damien then concludes that the Queen's celebrated visit to Jerusalem occurred while she was still Queen, before she became Pharaoh, and therefore we have the appellation "Queen of Sheba". Her husband, Thutmose II, was then ruler of Egypt. Conventionally, Thutmose I is usually dated from 1524-1518 and Thutmose II from 1518-1504 BC. Their reignal years were, for Thutmose I from 969-ca. 963, and for Thutmose II from about 963-950/49 BC. When Thutmose II died, Senenmut began to intervene in the affairs of Egypt at the invitation of Hatshepsut herself, the word used is "command", as Senenmut himself puts it. [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 351; Others state that Thutmose II also was husband to his sister by the name of Ramaka.]
are quotations from the relevant Egyptian reliefs:|
As to the question if Thutmose qualifies for the pharaoh who sacked a city in the Palestine of Solomon, Kurt Sethe noticed a fragment recording a campaign of Thutmose II in "Retenu, the Upper". and probably as far as Niy, so far an unknown location.
"[Gifts which were brought to] the fame of the king, Okhepernere (Thutmose II) [from his vic]tories .... elephants .... horse[s] .... [Retenu] the Upper .... [the land] of Niy ... kings ... his majesty in ... [when] he came out of ..."[Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 125]
From the above Egyptian quotation we can see that Thutmose II qualifies for the pharaoh who sacked Gezer [1.Kings 9:16] and with whom Solomon had "made affinity".[1.Kings 3:1]
may ask, how can it be that a worshipper of Yahwe, the true God of
Israel, could steep to such a level and idolize Egyptian gods and
goddesses as Senmut does? After all he makes statements like|
"... that I may be remembered in the nether world ... steward of Amon, Senmut..may he follow the god, lord of gods ... [Ibid., Sec. 353] to cite a few. A partial answer to that question may be that these inscriptions were made by Egyptian workmen according to set patterns of laudations, praises and invocations of gods, quite independent of the particular desire of the person being memorialized. If Solomon could or would have been interested in changing these patterns to accommodate his Hebrew beliefs we just don't know.
|As for the
inscription of Senenmut where he recounts how he was `commanded' to the
court of Hatshepsut we read in the section entitled `His Duties as
"[It was] the chief steward, Senmut, who conducted all the works of the king: in Karnak, in Hermonthis, [in] Der el Bahari of Amon, in the temple of Mut, in Ishru, in southern Opet of Amon (Luxor), in [the presence] of this august god, while maintaining the monuments of the Lord of the Two Lands, enlarging, restoring --- works, without deafness, (but) according to all that was commanded at the court, LPH. It was commanded him that [he] should be --- because he was so excellent for the heart (0f the king). It came to pass in every respect, as was commanded by doing according to the desire of his majesty concerning it. His true servant, without his like; strong-hearted, not lax concerning the monuments of the lord of gods; wearer of the royal seal, prophet of Amon, [Se]nmut." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 351]
With Solomon probably being Senenmut what we read in his inscriptions in Egypt derives new meaning:
"I was a noble, to whom one hearkened; moreover, I had access to all the writings of the prophets; there was nothing which I did not know of that which happened since the beginning." [Brestead, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 353]
The Account of the Queen of Sheba and the Affairs of Punt
In order to come to a better understanding of the Punt reliefs of Queen Hatshepsut and if they relate to the Queen of Sheba visit or are to be understood as a separate event, we must consider:
1. Solomon marrying the daughter of Thutmose II indicating that the `Queen of Sheba' visit had something to do with this marriage explaining also the exchanging of gifts.
2. the merchant vessels of the combined Israelite/Phoenician navy going on up to 3 year trading voyages along the shores of the Red Sea, Arabia, Africa, and perhaps as far as today's Afghanistan, Pakistan and India to the east. To the south they could have reached as far as Madagaskar and today's Zanzibar.
In 3 years even a slow moving ship could traverse quite a distance, staying in protected coves or harbors during bad weather. We are not told if Solomon's fleet sustained any losses but they must have because toward the second half of his reign these voyages were probably already discontinued.1)
1) Some 100 years later, from the time of king Jehoshaphat (872-848 BC), we read: "Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold: but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion-Geber." 1.Kings 22:48
"And after this did Jehoshaphat join himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, who did very wickedly: And he joined himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish: and they made the ships in Ezion-Geber. Then Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Maresha prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because you have made a joined venture with Ahaziah, the Lord has broken your works. And the ships were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish." 2.Chronicles 20:35-37 It appears the Minoans had a fleet of ships on the Red Sea which participated with the Phoenician navy in trading ventures begun by Solomon and that a storm wrecked the ships at Ezion-Geber. The words `to make ships go to Tarshish' should probably be understood as the navy of Tarshish being readied for a voyage to Ophir and the Book of Kings has the better rendition of the original meaning.
The destruction of the fleet at Ezion-Geber did not stop the commercial activities for a century later we read again: "Howl, ye, ships of Tarshish, for it [City of Tyre] is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in ..."Isiaiah 23 Meaning that the people of Tyre made their way to Tarshish, the island of Crete. This information from later centuries on navy merchant ventures started in the days of Solomon. To have Cretan/Tarshish ships at Ezion Geber implies that large amounts of felled trees and/or cut timber had to be transported to Ezion Geber and that the area must have had a ship yard for a lengthy period of time. A likely spot for such a ship yard could also have been located on or in the vicinity of the small island of `Jezirat Faraun' (Latitude 29.4667, Longitude 34.8667) just off the coast and to the south of Eilat.
Egyptian Ship Building
Interestingly enough during this approximate period of time approching the El Amarna Age, the time of Amenhotep II/Amenhotep III, Egyptian papyri also mention ship building. Here is what Donald B. Redford says about a document known as BM10056:
Frequent mention is made of the "king's son and sm-priest Amenhotpe" but the papyrus is concerned with wood for shipbuilding and mentions the northern town of `Prw-nfr' where a dockyard was situated.
Another papyrus, Leningrad 1116B, is also concerned with wood for shipbuilding and Leningrad 1116B mentions `Prw-nfr', Granville concludes they all have a common origin.
We don't know where the town of `Prw-nfr' was located.
Could it be that there was competition for wood suitable for ship building? It is very likely that the Egyptian shipbuilders and those of Jehoshaphat's time received their wood from the same region, the Phoenician coastal mountain range, today's Lebanon.
Later Period Harbors
The ancient Red Sea harbor of Berenike goes back to at least Roman period times. Evidence was found that show goods were imported from as far away as India.
|But the more
important point we want to make is that in our opinion for these
merchant mariners to insure that desired merchandize was plentiful and
available when they would call again on these harbors, they may have
left behind some of their own men to live there and organize matters for
the next time ships would arrive. We know that Phoenician mariners
established small colonies in several places along the Mediterranean
coast. These merchant representatives may have been on locations
especially in the closer foreign ports of Ethiopia, southern Arabia and
Somalia. Paruah and his wife Eti may have been such trading ambassadors.|
The whole account of the Punt voyage and the Queen of Sheba visit appears to us to have been a culmination of a longer journey or journeys probably conducted by Hatshepsut in imitation of the successful voyages undertaken by the Israelite/Phoenician fleet of which the Egyptians must have been very much aware. That is why an economically bankrupt 21st Dynasty background to this era as specified by conventional historians is such an anachronistic situation. Egypt had harbors along the shores of the Red Sea from long before the 18th Dynasty. Any ships passing through these waters, especially when on a regular basis, the Egyptians knew about. If Solomon was able to find wealth for his kingdom so could they have done.
Ever since old times the people of southern Arabia (Yemen) and Ethiopia vied for calling the Queen of Sheba their own queen. The actual situation was that Hatshepsut was the queen of both of these people. During her reign borders were not clearly defined and the Punt reliefs proof that she had commercial contact via an Egyptian fleet with distant locations. Her fame had spread with these voyages making it understandable how both nations could accept her as their Egyptian suzerain.
While Solomon's and the Egyptian fleets plowed the waters searching for the richest harbors, at some point Hatshepsut herself, probably quite early during this time, made the fateful decision to visit Solomon to learn about all these activities from him. She could have traveled by ship to Eilat at the tip of the Gulf of Aqaba and from there reached Jerusalem by caravan or she could have traveled down the Nile to a delta town and crossed the Sinia. Ancient caravans could traverse this desert in less than 2 weeks time.
In this scenario Punt then could very well have been an African coastal location with Palestinian ambassadors living there. The potted trees we see being brought aboard ship were apparently fragrant myrrh trees, Boswellia sacra species. Anti-trees or myrrh (frankincense) trees are mentioned in the Egyptian records while in the Bible we read about algum trees. It is not hard to conclude that 2 kinds of trees fascinated the queen:
1. trees for their fruit and shade
2. certain trees for their aromatic properties
We may surmize that these by Solomon imported trees may have been fruit trees like almond nut trees or sandal wood trees.
|Where was Punt?|
According to the southern portal information of inscriptions by Thutmose III at Karnak Punt was #48 in a list of locations to the south of Egypt.
In the `Hymn of Victory' Thutmose III wrote the following:
"I have come, causing thee to smite the princes of Zahi (D'h);
I have hurled them beneath thy feet amongst their highlands.
I have caused them to see thy majesty as lord of radiance,
so that thou hast shone in their faces like my image.
I have come, causing thee to smite the Asiatics,
thou hast made captive the heads of the Asiatics at Retenu.
I have caused them to see thy majesty equipped with thy adornment,
When thou takest the weapons of war in the chariot.
I have come causing thee to smite the eastern land,
Thou hast trampled those who are in the district's of Gods-Land.
I have caused them to see thy majesty as a circling star,
when it scatters its flame in fire, and gives forth its dew."
[Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 658]
No one questions that Retenu of the Asiatics is Palestine. As for `God's-Land', it is closely associated with `the eastern land' and that is where we should leave it. From this we can gather then that Retenu and God's-Land are the same place. We should also realize that `Retenu' could be read as `Rezenu', exchanging the `t' for a `z' as in Terah vs. Zerah. Re-ze-nu then stands for `er-ez' Israel as the Israelites called their land, `our land Israel'.
If we then equate `Retenu' with `God's-Land' we learn from other inscriptions at Deir el Bahari that `God's-Land' is also the same place or very closely associated with `Punt'.
"[The arrival] of the king's messenger in God's-Land. together with the army which is behind him, before the chief's of Punt." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 255]
From this we can now determine that all three, Retenu, God's-Land and Punt are one and the same region at this time in history.
The term `Punt' seems to indicate something more than just a particular town. We would suggest that it means something like a place where the `southerners' or `Africans' live, wherever that may be, in Africa itself or in Palestine. In that sense it would not be a town anywhere in Africa but rather in locations closely connected to Egypt and Palestine by economic ties, a sort of `most favored nation' status. From wherever the Egyptians received their most desired goods that was a `Punt' to them. In the past commentators have looked for an easy way out, a fixed location (toponym). But we think it may be more complex than that, a term having to do with the merchant activities of the period.
As far as `God's-Land' is concerned we believe it was not just a locality in Egypt but was definitely situated outside the borders of Egypt proper. Egyptian texts frequently mention God's-Land and Punt together, jumping easily from a southern to a northern location within a sentence.
The Inscriptions in the tomb of Rekhmire
"Reception of the tribute of the south country, besides the tribute of Punt, the tribute of Retenu (Rtnw), the tribute of Keftyew, besides the booty of all countries which the fame of his majesty, King Menkheperre (Thutmose III), brought, by the hereditary prince ... Rekhmire." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 761]
It appears that Rekhmire shifts his view from the south country to Punt and Retenu located in Palestine. The south country could refer to locations south of the Judean regional limits at Ezion-Geber and in describing it thus refer to the African natives, "Southerners of God's-Land", imported by Solomon's fleet, who may have been living now at the tip of the Gulf of Eilat. This view is supported by the bee-hive huts built on stilts we find represented at Deir el Bahari. The Punt reliefs from Deir el Bahari seem to suggest a tropical, African location because of stilted, beehive shaped huts, a shape found in use around Lake Victoria even during the 1850's (see images below). We also see palm trees, cattle and what appears to be somewhat similar to a hippopotamus but may be another species. [See the topic `Senmut' for images of these features.] These stilts were probably not so much needed to keep them dry from tide water as they were to keep out the scorpions and snakes of the surrounding desert.It was not uncommon to find such structures in their native African countries. We have no indication that Solomon kept these Africans as slaves, they may have come along on this journey quite voluntarily for life in an African village could sometimes be frightful. [Alan Moorehead, `The White Nile', (London, 1971), p. 61, 62, 68]
As for those who might object and insist to locate `the southern land' south of Egypt, in African territory may find support for that in other quotations.
But it seems to us that `Punt' is not a name for a fixed location. We believe the word could refer to locations who supplied Egypt with sought after merchandise wherever on the compass that might be. We find this supported by comparing references to Punt in the annals of Pharaoh Harmhab where Punt seems to indicate an African location vs. those of Ramses III, where Punt seems to be more associated with the `North' probably an Egyptianism for Phoenicia. [Breasted, `Records', Vol. III, Sec. 34-40]
In revised chronology Harmhab reigned at the end of the 8th century BC, (702-681) when Hezekiah (715-686) was king in Judah. We do not have information that Judah then controlled Eilat. It is more probable that the people at the tip of the Gulf of Eilat were quite independent at this time.
In revised chronology Ramses III reigned in the 1st half of the 4th century BC, (379-361) when Judah was a Persian province and Eilat probably quite independent of either power.
In the section entitled `The Syrian War' in the days of Ramses III, we read:
"... Thou hast subdued the hearts of the rebels; the chiefs come to thee, bearing tribute --, every good product of their countries. I give to thee Egypt with good things, the bow-peoples (Nine bows, Egyptians) as subjects of thy palace. The South comes to thee in fear, and the North bowing down to thy fame. I open for thee the ways of Punt, with myrrh and incense for thy serpent-diadem..." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. IV, Sec. 130]
From the Song of Songs 4:6, 13-15 we learn that the Palestine of Solomon produced aromatic frankincense and myrrh. Schoff identified `anti-trees' as `Boswellia carteri' in Lucas, `Ancient Egyptian Materials', p. 93.
Pterocarpus santalinus Sandelwood tree
|Algum tree||Frankincense tree Boswellia carteri||They were termed `myrrh' by Breasted and `frankincense' by E. Naville. May the reader be reminded that the use of fragrant woods, oils and the like is talked about frequently during the time of Solomon and in the writings attributed to him. It is part of the cultural, political and economical impact the Egypt of the 18th Dynasty had on the early monarchy and later the divided kingdom of Israel and Judah. This impact is also evidenced by intermarriage, Solomon married an Egyptian princess, Egyptian artifacts in Palestine like scarabs, statuettes, ushabtis and figurines, in word phrases or Egyptianisms, borrowing of earlier poetic literature from the|
|writings of David in
the Psalms, the ivory age and so on, all these leave a trail of Egyptian-Palestinian
relations. We also do well to remember that in the revised scenario
Ahmose lived just some 60 years before Hatshepsut and the help he
received from the "One" (King Saul) in driving out the
Amalekite/Hyksos of Egypt was very much appreciated and brought on a
friendly affinity between these two nations. Their history had come full
circle. At one time the Israelites were made slaves in Egypt and now,
after the Egyptians themselves had to endure hardships from foreign
occupiers it was their former slaves who assisted them in overcoming
their task masters. These were indeed good reasons for starting off
the relations between Egypt and Israel on good terms. It was perhaps
this closeness that prompted Hatshepsut and Thutmose III to use the term
`God's-Land' to describe Israel/Judah. It was a time when religious
feelings and believes dictated behavioral viewpoints, and the ups and
downs of people and nations were viewed as the will of the gods. No
doubt the Egyptians viewed the Israelites as worshipping a powerful God.
While Israel had endured about 125 years of slavery in Egypt, the
Egyptians had to endure over 400 years under the Hyksos/Amalekites.|
What were the Biblical algum trees?
While the inscriptions of Deir el Bahari mention `anti-trees', the Bible talks about algum wood in connection with the Queen of Sheba visit and says that Solomon used algum wood to make harps and psalteries. "And the king made of the algum trees terraces to the house of the Lord..." 2.Chronicles 9:11. This verse could also be read as `algum wood'. Does it then mean that the terraces themselves were made of wood rather than having algum trees planted on them? It is very unlikely that terraces were made of wood.
Extensive terracing of Palestinian hill slopes.
|There is every reason to think that such an architectural feature would require stone and `trees' should be read instead of `wood'. In the Punt reliefs at Deir el Bahari showing the fleet being loaded we see men carrying potted trees into the ship, trees they had received as gifts from the Puntites. The reliefs also show a group of 3 trees under whose branches piles of flasks, rings and even cattle are shown. Comparing the leaves of these trees with Boswellia species leads us to conclude they are the famous spice trees but others have identified them as `Pterocarpus santalinus', red sandalwood from southern India [Winifred Walke, `All the Plants of the Bible', Harper & Row]. These trees are drawn in proportion to their surroundings but must have been still small when transported in pots and the carving must have been made after they had grown for a while|
|or else drawn what
the later, anticipated look would be like. Boswellia trees grow up to 24
Others have suggested that the Algum tree of Solomn's time was a `Juniperus excelsa' which grows like a pyramid and can reach a height of about 60 feet. This tree is reportedly native to the Lebanon mountains and Gilead. The example shows a `Juniperus occidentalis' species. If the `J. excelsa' is of the same appearance they don't seem to resemble the leave patterns on the Egyptian monuments, provided they were reproduced true to the appearance of the actual tree.
Does it mean that the different name, `anti trees', in the Egyptian inscription precludes that we are talking about the same event? Most every people call trees by different names. The Egyptians did not copy tree names from Israel and vice versa. Perhaps a comparison of the leaves with the Egyptian relief pictures of the trees imported from Punt may help. If the leaves look most likely as those of `Boswellia carteri', that may help us understand that these fragrant trees came from Palestine.
|The Tomb of
Two lines of Asiatics bring forward splendid and richly chased vessels of gold, silver, etc. The Asiatics are designated as "the chief of Keftyew, the chief of Kheta, the chief of Tunip (Tnpw), the chief of Kadesh." Before them is an inscription:
"Giving praise to the Lord of the Two Lands, obeisance to the Good God, by the chiefs of every land. They acclaim the victories of his majesty; their tribute is upon their backs, being every [product] of Gods-Land: silver, gold, lapis lazuli, malachite, every splendid, costly stone..."[Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 773]
It appears that in this case God's-land is located within the realm of the Asiatics of Palestine.
Did Thutmose III ever call Palestine by the name Hatshepsut had called it - Punt?
"Marvels brought to his majesty in the land of Punt in this year: dried myrrh ..." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 486]
So we see that Thutmose III also had made Punt his possession.
|A Comparison of the Exchange of Gifts|
|The Egyptian Sources||The Hebrew Sources|
|The Gifts of the Egyptians for the Puntites||The Gifts of Solomon for the Queen of Sheba|
|The leader of the Egyptian
expeditions, Nehesi, brought:|
an axe, a poignard in its sheath, 2 leg bangles, 11 necklaces, 5 large rings.
But the records of the loading of the boats with gifts given by the Puntites list the following items:
Two vessels heavily laden with myrrh trees, sacks filled with myrrh and ivory. We see examples of probably fragrant woods, ebony, pure ivory, green gold of Emu, cinnamon wood, khesyt wood, incense, balsam wood, resin, antimony, eye cosmetics, apes, monkeys, dogs, skins of panthers, throw sticks (perhaps a sort of boomerang), natives and their children.
|The Bible says
plainly, `Solomon gave the queen "all her
In her counting scene we get a better impression on the riches she received from Punt which included "silver, gold, lapis lazuli, malachite, and every splendid costly stone" ... great abundance of spices, algum trees and heaps of myrrh. Riches imported by Solomon from the harbors visited by his merchant fleet.
|The Egyptian gifts for the
Puntites appear to be more what we would think in more modern times to
have been presented by explorers of Africa to native chieftains, again,
fitting the view that Punt had something to do with African people.|
|The Timing and Direction of the Voyage|