ENTRADA, Curriculum     English version..English
E-mail Ecrivez-nous Actualización: 

2 agosto 2005 

Chronologie Tempus fugit  Nedstat Basic - Free web site statistics


 Noticias mías


  Escrituras megalíticas(IV-III milenio)  en Huelva  Publicaciones UNED http://apliweb.uned.es/publicaciones/busq-articulo/index.asp.


Cabeceras Temas


Mis últimos libros

Mis último libros
libreria Sanz y Torres

Historia del Mundo Antiguo , volumen I, I: Próximo Oriente;

I, II: Egipto, fenicios, Israel

Volumen II El mundo mediterráneo, Macedonia, Alejandro, Cartago, Roma











   Ir a página principal de religión egipcia

 Tu nombre en jeroglíficos





El papel de las mujeres en Egipto era considerable, sobre todo el de las reinas, reflejo sobre todo del poder de las diosas de la Corona: Wadjet, la diosa-cobra, Nekhbet, la Diosa buitre e Isis, cuyo mismo nombre significa "trono".

Pero no solo fue importante Hatshepsut, que llevó los títulos de "rey" en masculino y se representó en forma masculina. También Cleopatra VII Thea se representó de esta forma. Y otras muchas mujeres ejercieron el poder por derecho propio en este antiguo país.

Si nuestras cuentas y datos  no fallan , al menos quince mujeres reinaron en Egipto, como reinas-faraón.


1.    MERNEITH (1ª Dinastía).ÉPOCA TINITA 4. HATSHEPSUT (18th Dynasty)  

7. A la muerte de Tutakhamón reinó sola su esposa Ankhesenamon


10. CLEOPATRA I 13.Berenice III
2.   NITOCRIS: (6th Dynasty) 5. NEFERTITI ?




14.Berenice IV


3. SOBEKNEFRU (12th Dynasty) 6.  Maketaton, esposa de Ankhperure Smenkare. 9.TWOSRET (19th Dynasty) 12. Cleopatra III 15. Cleopatra VII Philopater




 A lo largo de estos periodos, el papel de las reinas egipcias, principalmente, fue :

  1.  Asegurar por medio de numerosos hijos la sucesión al trono. En general, había en el harén real numerosos esposas legítimas y "esposas" reales, cuyos hijos eran herederos al trono por orden de nacimiento.  
  2. Asegurar el funcionamiento del palacio como "casa real".
  3. Podían ser Regentes, y reinar en nombre de sus hijos menores de edad hasta que estos alcanzasen la edad de gobernar.
  4. Asistían al rey en el consejo real, apoyando sus gestiones.
  5. En general, se tiene pocas noticias de sus papel en la política, aunque se conocen matrimonios de princesas egipcias con monarcas extranjeros en época hicsa.






1.    MERNEITH (1ª Dinastía).ÉPOCA TINITA


  Merytneith ( Merneith )
  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • mrt-nit , mr-nit

(forma femenina)


(forma masculina)




www.narmer.pl/ dyn/01en.htm

www.tierradefaraones.com/. ../16-02/16-02.htm

Este la funeraria de la reina  Merneith, Iª Dinastía. Necrópolis real de Abidos.


Reina de la I Dinastía, hija probablemente del Horus Djer, y posiblemente esposa del Horus Djet y madre de Oudimou.

Un cenotafio con dos estelas fue erigido con su nombre en  Abydos al lado del de  Djet, tandis y su tumba en  Saqqara está también al lado de la de éste Horus.

  On these stelae her name is not inscribed in serekh and there is no Horus falcon, the facts both point at the fact that she was indeed a woman.



www.ancientworlds.net/ aw/Places/Place/327154

www.tierradefaraones.com/. ../16-02/16-02.htm


Tomb Y at Umm el Ga'ab in Abydos
Queen Merytneith
I Dynasty


The tomb of Queen Merytneith was originally overlooked by the first excavator in the Umm el Ga'ab area at  Abydos, but was later identified by Sir William Petrie. External measures of this tomb are  16.50 x 13.90 x 2.70 meters with internal measurements of 8.90 x 6.30 meters. The wall thickness of the tomb is 1.30-1.60 meters. The central chamber was surrounded with eight narrow storerooms where numerous sealed jars were found. In the funerary chamber, somewhat deeper compared to the  storerooms, was found the stela of Merytneith. The tomb is surrounded by 41 subsidiary graves.

Floorplan of the Tomb Y at Abydos belonging to Queen Merytneith
Floorplan of the Tomb Y at Abydos belonging to Queen Merytneith



Saqqara. Tumba de la reina  Merneith: planta y corte longitudinal.



Here is the evidence:

A cluster of tombs belonging to first dynasty pharaohs was found at Abydos. 

Mastaba de la reina Merneith



Each consists of a large underground chamber lined with mud bricks.  Surrounding it were rows consisting of small rooms for the burial of retainers dispatched to serve their monarch in the next world.  All had been plundered.  One of these tombs had a stela bearing the name Merneith, with no title or other information.  It is tempting to dismiss the stela as a coincidence but all of the tombs and known pharaohs have been matched.  If it is not her tomb the mystery is even deeper.

She also has a tomb at Saqqara alongside those of other 1st Dynasty monarchs.

A seal bears her name along with the names of other Pharaohs. 

This is not much to go on, but it will have to do.  Above the other names on the seal is the Horus symbol signifying a pharaoh.  Above her name are the symbols for the title King’s Mother.  Nowhere do we find any of the symbols used to designate a reigning Pharaoh, but why else would her name appear with that of other rulers.  She must have been a very remarkable woman to be granted the privilege of a tomb in the royal burial grounds at Abydos and at Saqqara. 

There is certainly sufficient evidence to prove the existence of a very prominent queen bearing the name Merneith.  Whether that is enough to prove she ruled as Pharaoh is another question.  It should be noted that Merneith is normally a male name.  The female equivalent would be Merytneith (and in some English language books that is how her name appears).  We know she has to be a woman because she bears the title King’s Mother.  Based on the length of the reigns of her husband Djet and her son Den, it is not impossible to believe that she served as regent for an infant son until he reached maturity, but we just do not know.
When English archaeologist Flinders Petrie re-excavated the tombs at the old burial ground of Abydos during 1901 he unexpectedly found an unknown tomb whose owner bore the name Mer-Neith.  The tomb of queen Mer-Neith at 
Abydos The monument itself was a traditional building under ground with side chambers within like the mastaba tombs (picture left) accompanied with side burials of retainers outside.
At first he thought that he had found an unknown king, but soon new fact came to light telling the unexpected truth that Mer-Neith was a woman.
It became clear that she was the widow and queen of king Djet and held office during the childhood and youth of their son, the next ruler to be - king Den whose name appeared in the grave.
A proof of her position in the sequence of leaders was later found on a seal impression from the tomb of her son, where her name was put along with the ruling kings but without the king's insignia - the Horus falcon.
In other lists from later times however, the Egyptians did not mention her, only her son. Above all, her name was found on a fine stele made of stone (picture right) that probably have had the same function as the one found from her husband - to mark the place of offering for the veneration of her immortal soul.
For later commemoration she also had a ritual area in Abydos, beside the ones from five other regents.
Her name contains the old patroness and war goddess from Lower Egypt - Neith and means: "beloved by Neith", whose regalia, (shield and arrows), are present on small labels from this time as well as her big stela. That the queen thus was a native of the Delta is a plausible guess, thereby making a sort of matrimonial alliance between the North and the South, but this is so far not confirmed.
Few remains attested to her are found outside Abydos, probably because all official sign, marks of property etc were made in the name of her little son. An exception is a great mastaba (Nr 3503, 16x42 m) in Sakkara where her name has been found as inscriptions on stone vessels, jars and seal impressions.
Mer-Neith is a unique figure in the long line of Egyptian rulers being a woman, and a theory why she reached this lofty position is that she was related to the old king Djer, possibly being his daughter. This would have given her a position respectable enough to run the country during the infancy of her son, the future king Den.







Pepi I married two sisters both named Ankhnesmeryre.  (Ankhesenpepi is another version of the same name.  The second of these two women bore the son we call Pepi II.  This son had a particularly long reign (some say over 90 years) and was only 6 years old when he came to the throne following the sudden death of an older brother.  Ankhesenpepi II may have acted as his regent possibly assisted by her brother, Djau.  Evidence of her rule is inconclusive.  A picture was found in the Sinai that depicts her wearing a Uraeus, but the identification has been disputed.




2.   NITOCRIS: (6th Dynasty)


2184 - 2183
2205-2200 (Redford)
2193-2191 (von Beckerath)
2184-2181 (Shaw)
2180 (Krauss & Franke)
2152-2150 (Allen)
Family Tree

Nitekreti (Nitocris)
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nt-iqrty (Tur.4.8) , Nitocris (Man)

Turin Canon

Nitekreti (Nitocris)

       Queen known to us from later records in Turin Canon and Manetho. Unfortunately documentation in form of contemporary to her artifacts which could confirm her historical existence are missing. Legends passed by Manetho should be considered with care. Turin Canon assigns to her 2 years, 1 month and 1 day of rule while Manetho – 12 years and Erastotenes – 6 years.


Nombre de Horus: -
Nombre de Nebty: -
Nombre de Horus de Oro: -
Nombre de Nesut-Bity: -
Nombre de Sa Ra: Neitikerty (a)
Otros Titulos: -

Nombre dado por los autores griegos: Nitocris

Otras transcripciones de su onomástica: Doricha, ¿ Menkara ? ( ver Menkara. VII-VIII dinastía ), Neithikerty, Neitikertysaptah, Neitiqerty, Neithiqret, Neitokre, Netaqerti, Neterkara (?) (ver Neterkara. VII-VIII dinastía), Netikereti, Netiqerti, Nitokerti, Nitokris


Años de reinado: 2 Cronología: 2184-2181 a.C.
Antecesora de: Neterkara (?) Sucesora de: Merenra-Antyemsaf* (II) (?)

Hijo de: - Y de: -
Nombre de el/los cónyuge/es: -
Nombre de el/los hijo/s: -

Localización de su tumba: -

Gobernantes coetáneos extranjeros: Pendiente de elaboración





The Turin Canon mentions her name and Manetho said of her that she was braver than a man, the most beautiful of women, and fair skinned with red cheeks.  Herodotus says that a group of conspirators assassinated the king and installed his sister, Nitocris, on the throne instead.  She had a large underground chamber built and then invited to dinner in it all the men she believed to have been involved in the murder of her brother.  She then committed suicide by throwing herself onto burning embers.  No archeological evidence of her reign has ever been found.  If she did rule her reign marked the end of the 6th dynasty and the Old Kingdom.







3. SOBEKNEFRU (12th Dynasty)


1782 - 1778
1805-1801 (Malek)
1799-1795 (Shaw)
1798/97-1794/93 (von Beckerath)
1790-1786 (Redford)
1790-1785 (Grimal)
1787-1783 (Arnold)
1785-1781 (Dodson)
1763-1759 (Franke)
1760-1756 (Krauss)
Family Tree

Sobekneferure ( Nefrusobek )

  • Hr mrit-ra
  • sAt-sxm- nbt-tAwi
  • bik(t)-nbw Ddt-xaw
  • kA-sbk-ra (Sak.37)
  • nfrw-sbk , nfrw-sbk-Sdti , nfrw-sbk-[sA]t ra (?) , <ra>-nfrw-sbk (Tur.6.2) , Skemiophris (Man)

Hr mrit-ra Hor Meritre (Horus, Beloved Of Re)


kA-sbk-ra Sobekkare (Sobek Is The Ka Of Re)

ra-nfrw-sbk Sobekneferure (Sobek Is The Beauty Of Re)  

nfrw-sbk-Sdti Sobekneferushedti

        Turin Canon assigns 3 years, 10 months and 24 days of rule, while Manetho – 4 years. She was younger sister (and wife) of Amenemhat IV, presumably daughter of Amenemhat III. Statues of Tell ed-Daba and architrave of Herakleopolis are preserved. Inscription on the nilometer at Nubian Semna records 3 years of her rule. Building of pyramid at Mazghuna has not been completed, and probably never used, only its underground part was finished.


Nombre de Horus: Meritra
Nombre de Nebty: Satsejemnebtauy
Nombre de Horus de Oro: Dyedetjau
Nombre de Nesut-Bity: Sebekkara*
Nombre de Sa Ra: Neferusobek*, Neferusobeksatra, Neferusobekshedti (b), Raneferusobek (a)
Otros Titulos: -

Nombre dado por los autores griegos: Skemiofris

Otras transcripciones de su onomástica: Biknebudyedetjau, Dedetkhe, Djedetkhaw, Escemiofris, Kasobekre, Meretre, Meritre, Merytra, Merytre, Nefrusobek, Satsekhemnebettawy, Sebekkare, Sebeknefrura, Sebeknefrure, Shedetsobknofrura, Shedetsobknofrure, Sitsekhem, Skemiophr, Sobeknefru, Sobkenophr

(a) (b)

Años de reinado: 4 Cronología: 1777-1773 a.C.
Antecesora de: Sejemrajutauy-Sebekhotep Sucesora de: Maajerura-Amenemhat* (IV)

Hija de: Nymaatra-Amenemhat* (III) Y de: -
Nombre de el/los cónyuge/es: -
Nombre de el/los hijo/s: -

Localización de su tumba: Mazghuna (?)

Gobernantes coetáneos extranjeros:

Aproximación biográfica





Amenemhet III ruled successfully for some 45 years, greatly expanding the agricultural potential of the Faiyum, and extending his influence into Nubia, the Sinai and Syria.  He was the last great ruler of the twelfth dynasty.  His successor was a son or grandson named Amenemhet IV, who ruled for some 8 or 9 years. 

Sobeknefru was a half sister of Amenemhet IV.  Some have suggested that she was his wife and other that she was a rival, but there is no evidence to support either contention.  It is possible that she began as regent for an infant son before claiming the throne in her own right.

Unfortunately we know very little about her beyond the fact that she really did reign, albeit only for 3 or 4 years.  Manetho mentions her in his list of Egyptian rulers and she also appears in the Turin Canon.  A Nubian Nilometer is dated to the 3rd year of her reign and a cylindrical seal bears her name and title.  Three headless statues of her were found in the Faiyum, and a part of Amenemhet III’s Labyrinth can be attributed to her. 

Manetho reported that it had been decided some time in the 2nd Dynasty that a woman could be king, but it clearly posed problems for the Egyptians.  They were accustomed to think in terms of opposites: light and dark, good and evil, order and chaos, male and female.  One could not very well have one without the other.  A king needed a queen, but what was to be done with a reigning queen?  If she were married one might presume her husband would become king; if she were not, where was the male component---the opposite without which nothing could exist.  In the English language it is easy enough to find gender neutral terms for every situation.  The word monarch, for example refers to a crowned ruler but does not specify sex.  There are no gender neutral words in the Egyptian language.  On cannot refer to a person, title or office without revealing gender.

Sobeknefru seems to have been uncertain as to how to resolve this problem.  Some artifacts bear female titulary and others male.  One of the statues show her wearing a male kilt over a female shift.  Unfortunately none show her head and since neither her mummy nor her burial place has been found we have no way of knowing what she looked like.






In the New Kingdom the Queen became much more prominent and powerful.  She acquired in her own right secular and religious titles that carried with them genuine jobs to do and estates with land, servants and administrators to provide an independent income.  The title God's Wife of Amun provided the Queen with her own source of money and gave her a considerable degree of independence.

4. HATSHEPSUT (18th Dynasty)  

1466 - 1444
1503-1483 (Wente)
1502-1482 (Redford)
1490-1468 (Hornung)
1489-1469 (Parker)

1479-1458 (Krauss)
1479/3-1458/7 (
von Beckerath)
1479-1457 (M
álek, Aldred, Kitchen)
1478-1458 (Murnane, Grimal)
1473-1458 (Arnold, Shaw)
1472-1457 (Dodson)
1467-1445 (Helck)
Family Tree

  • Hr wsrt-kAw
  • wDAt-rnpwt
  • nTrt-xaw
  • mAat-kA-ra
  • HAt-Spswt (Hnmt-imn) , Amesses (Man) , Amensis (Man)

 mAat-kA-ra Maatkare (Truth Is The Soul Of Re)

 HAt-Spswt (Hnmt-imn) Henemet Amun Hatshepsut (Who Loved Amun ; Foremost Of Noble Ladies)




Nombre de Horus: Useretjau
Nombre de Nebty: Uadyetrenput
Nombre de Horus de Oro: Neterijau
Nombre de Nesu-Bity: Maatkara* (a)
Nombre de Sa Ra: Hatshepsut*, Hatshepsutjenemetamon (b), Jenemetamon
Otros Titulos: -

Nombre dado por los autores griegos: Amensis, Amesse, Aspesis

Otras transcripciones de su onomástica: Amesis, Amesses, Hasepsowe, Hatasu, Hatchepset, Hatchepsout, Hatshopsitou, Hatshopsitu, Kamara, Kamare, Kematra, Kematre, Khenemetamon, Maatkare, Maetkara, Maetkare, Makara, Makare, Makera, Makere, Mattkara, Mattkare, Netcheretjau, Netjeretkhau, Netkheretkhau, Uadjetrenput, Uadjitrenpet, Useretkau, Userkhau, Wazi

(a) (b)

Años de reinado: 22 Cronología: 1473-1458 a.C.
Antecesora de: Menjeperra-Thutmose* (III) Sucesora de: Aajeperenra-Thutmose* (II)

Hija de: Aajeperkara-Thutmose* (I) Y de: Ahmose (II)
Nombre de el/los cónyuge/es: Aajeperenra-Thutmose* (II)
Nombre de el/los hijo/s: Meritra (a) (?), Neferura (a)

Localización de su tumba: Valle de los Reyes (tumba 20)

Gobernantes coetáneos extranjeros:

Aproximación biográfica





Since the heir of Tuthmosis II, a son by a harem-girl named Isis, was too young to rule on his own, the old king's Great Wife, Hatshepsut became the regent.  Gradually she began to play down her role as regent until she finally declared herself to be the Female Horus and official ruler of Egypt.  See Hatshepsut---The Female Horus for further information.








En el año 14 del reinado de Ajenaton*, la reina Nefertiti desaparecía de la escena pública. ¿ Qué pasó con Nefertiti ?. Estudios muy aceptados en la actualidad sugieren, aunque con las lógicas reservas, que la razón de esa repentina desaparición se deba al hecho de que asumiera la corregencia, para posteriormente, y una vez muerto su esposo, llamarse Anjjeperura* (+epíteto) y Neferneferuatón* (+epíteto). Es decir, muy probablemente el poco conocido personaje que le sucedió: Anjjeperura-Neferneferuaton-Semenejkara*. Ello explicaría las razones de la repentina desaparición de Nefertiti, y por el otro la verdadera naturaleza de tan desconocido rey.

1324 - 1321
1351-1348 (Hornung, Parker)
1355 (Redford)
1346-1343 (Dodson)
1342-1340 (Aldred, Kitchen)

1338-1336 (M
álek, Grimal, Shaw))
1338-1335 (
von Beckerath)
1336-1334 (Wente)

1336-1332 (Murnane, Krauss)
1324-1319 (Helck)
Family Tree


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • anx-xprw-ra (mri-wa-n-ra , mrinfr-xprw-ra)
  • nfr-nfrw-itn (mri-wa-n-ra , mri-Ax-n-itn) , smnx-kA-ra (Dsr-xprw)

 anx-xprw-ra Ankhkheperwre (Living Are The Manifestation Of Re)

 smnx-kA-ra Dsr-xprw Semenkhkare Djoserkheperw (Vigorous Is The Soul Of Re ; Holy Of Manifestations)

nfr-nfrw-itn (mri-wa-n-ra) Neferneferuaten Meriwaenre (Beautiful Is Beauty of Aten ; Beloved Of Dearest Of Re

        One of the most controversial characters in Egyptian history. Experts in the subject created many theories to light up darkness of that period. According to one of the hypotheses he might have been son of Amenhotep III and princess Sitamun and half-brother and successor of Akhenaten. It is also possible he was co-regent in last years of Akhenaten’s rule. According to various scholars Semenkhkare might have  ruled from 2 to 5 years. Some believe that he died shortly before Akhenaten, aged 25. There is hypothesis that Semenkhkare was father of Tutankhamen. According to C. Aldred of Scotland, the most outstanding experts on those times, Semenhkare and Tutankhamun were brothers. With high reliability it can be said that mummy found in 1907 by T. Davies in KV55 tomb in the Valley of the Kings was mummy of Semenkhkare. As the blood groups of both mummies were the same this fact would additionally confirm that they were close relatives and thus Aldred’s hypothesis seems to be very likely. Certainly Semenkhkare was husband of one of Ekhnaten’s daughters, the princess Merytaten. According to R. Krauss she might have held rule single-handed through a year after Akhenaten’s death. By marriage with her Semenkhkare reinforced his rights to the throne. The belief that Semenkhkare was co-regent of Akhenaten for a couple of years is recently the most popular. It is also possible that they were in much closer relations


Nefertiti (?)


Nombre de Horus: -
Nombre de Nebty: -
Nombre de Horus de Oro: -
Nombre de Nesu-Bity: Anjjeperura* (a), Merineferjeperura, Meriuaenra
Nombre de Sa Ra: Dyeserjeperu, Meriajenaton, Meriuaenra, Neferneferuaton*Ajetenhyes, Semenejkara*, Semenejkaradyeserjeperu (b)
Otros Titulos: -

Nombre dado por los autores griegos: Acenkeres, Acenqueres, Akenkerres, Akenkerses, Akerres, Aquenquerses, Aquerres

Otras transcripciones de su onomástica: Ankheperura, Ankheperure, Ankhkheperura, Ankhkheperure, Djeserkheperu, Djeserkheperura , Djeserkheperure, Meriakhenaton, Merireneferkheperura, Meryreneferkheperure, Nefertiti (?), Saakara, Saakare, Sakera, Sakere, Semenekhkara, Semenekhkare, Semenkara, Semenkare, Semenkhara, Semenkhare

(a) (b)

Años de reinado: 3 Cronología: 1338-1336 a.C.
Antecesor de: Nebjeperura-Tutanjaton (Tutanjamon)* Sucesor de: Neferjeperura-Amenhotep (IV) (Ajenaton)*

Hijo de: Neferjeperura-Amenhotep (IV) (Ajenaton)*(?) Y de: -
Nombre de el/los cónyuge/es: Meritaton
Nombre de el/los hijo/s: -

Localización de su tumba: Valle de los Reyes (tumba 55) (?)

Gobernantes coetáneos extranjeros: Pendiente de elaboración

www.tierradefaraones.com/. ../16-02/16-02.htm
Aproximación biográfica

Pendiente de elaboración










7. A la muerte de Tutakhamón reinó sola su esposa Ankhesenamon

Ankhesenamon esposa de Nebkheperure Tutankamon. XVIII dinastía.


 www.jguillen.jazztel.es/ Egipto/reinas.htm






O sarcófago completamente feito de ouro - preservação de um assassinato?

Tutankamon era instruído para os padrões egípcios, considerando que as crianças bem nascidas estudavam todas as artes conhecidas, história, religião, astronomia e outras matérias mais práticas como a agricultura e medicina. A partir dos 4 anos começavam a aprender a ler e escrever, o que era uma tarefa muito mais complicada do que hoje, em face dos hieróglifos. No túmulo de Tutankamon foi encontrado material completo para o trabalho de um escriba pois achava-se que os faraós trabalhariam como escribas para o deus Rá, no outro mundo. Foi encontrado também um "senet", um jogo que simulava uma disputa com o deus Rá e que era enterrado junto com o faraó para que pudesse jogar diretamente com o deus depois da morte. O jogo pertencente a Tutankamon tinha um tabuleiro feito em ébano e ouro e ficava em uma mesa cujas pernas tinha o formato de patas de leão e faz parte do tesouro encontrado no túmulo.

O trono - detalhe e requinte.

As jóias dão conta da disponibilidade de uma quantidade de ouro realmente impressionante e, mais do que isso, da excelente qualidade do trabalho dos ourives do antigo Egito. O faraó viveu aproximadamente 13 séculos antes de Cristo e, mesmo considerando essa distancia no tempo, a qualidade da produção chama a atenção pelo esmero e detalhe. Todo esse acervo encontra-se hoje no Museu do Cairo e constitui-se na maior coleção de jóias do mundo, embora eu não saiba dizer exatamente sob que critérios isso está sendo julgado. Provavelmente devem existir várias maiores coleções de jóias do mundo, determinada por variados critérios.

Tutankamon - acervo magnífico.

Tutankamon morreu aos 18 anos, provavelmente assassinado mas isso é apenas uma das muitas histórias misteriosas sem que haja uma certeza. O exame do seu corpo mumificado mostra sinais de um traumatismo provocado por uma forte pancada na cabeça mas parece que esse era um ferimento já cicatrizado. Cogito que estivesse começando a ter uma personalidade própria e talvez isso não interessasse aos sacerdotes que dominavam o governo. O faraó tinha sido obrigado a instituir novamente o politeísmo na religião, que havia sido extinguido pelo seu antecessor. Religião e governo, no Egito daquela época, eram quase uma só coisa. Por ter morrido tão jovem não teve oportunidade de mostrar se seria ou não um grande líder, um estrategista ou guerreiro. Seu curto reinado foi dominado por outros e sua grande fama só veio a distingui-lo mais recentemente, em 1922, quando foi descoberto o seu túmulo e o seu tesouro fabuloso.

Tutankamon - terá sido realmente assassinado?

O sarcófago de Tutankamon, feito inteiramente de ouro e coberto por uma enorme quantidade de jóias é apenas um exemplo desse fabuloso tesouro. Muitas outras caixas contendo jóias são encontradas no túmulo surpreendentemente pequeno do faraó. Sua morte prematura não deu tempo para que o túmulo que lhe seria destinado ficasse pronto. Cadeiras, peças de ornamento, roupas trabalhadas, colares, braceletes e uma enorme variedade de jóias compõe esse tesouro cercado de histórias e mistérios, cheio de intrigas palacianas e crimes cometidos por causa do poder. A história de Tutankamon é fantástica e merece ser melhor conhecida. Um dia teremos um CyberHistorias para falarmos mais sobre essas coisas. Estamos em busca de patrocinadores.








9.TWOSRET (19th Dynasty)


1195 - 1188
1209-1201 (Redford)
1198-1196 (Arnold)
1196-1188 (Grimal)
1194-1192 (Parker)
1194-1186 (O'Connor)
1193-1190 (Helck, Krauss)
1189-1187 (Dodson)
1188-1187 (Kitchen)
1188-1186 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung)
1186-1185 (von Beckerath)
1185-1184 (Wente)
  Tablica genealogiczna

  • Hr kAnxt (mri-mAat , mri-mAat nb-an-m-nsw-mi-itm)

  • grg-kmt waf-xAswt

  • ... ...

  • sAt-ra ([Hnwt]-tAmri , mri(t)-imn , mri(t).n-imn)

  • tA-wsrt (stpt.n-mwt , mri(t).n-mwt) , Thuoris (Man)

 sAt-ra mri(t)-imn Satre Meritamun  (Daughter Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun)

 tA-wsrt  stpt.n-mwt Taweseret Setepenmut   (Mighty Lady ; Chosen Of Mut)


       Wife of Seti II, step-mother of Siptah. As Seti-Merenptah, the son of Taweseret (or Takhat) and Seti II, who was the legal heir, died prematurely, the throne was passed to Taweseret’s minor stepson – Siptah. The queen held rule as regent in his behalf and after death of 20-years old king she overtook it also formally. She started even counting length of her reign including years of regency. That’s why Manetho ascribed to her 7 years of rule. The reason for decline of Taweseret’s rule was conflict with Sethnakht. Burial place – tomb KV14 in Kings’ Valley.




Nombre de Horus: Kanajt, Merimaat, Merimaatnebenemnesumitem
Nombre de Nebty: Geregkemetuafjasut
Nombre de Horus de Oro: -
Nombre de Nesu-Bity: Jenutameri, Meriamon, Merienamon, Sitra *(a)
Nombre de Sa Ra: Merenmut, Setepenmut, Tausert *, Tausertmeritenmut (b)
Otros Titulos: -

Nombre dado por los autores griegos: Tuoris, Polibo (?)

Otras transcripciones de su onomástica: Kanejet, Khanakt, Khanekhet, Mereramon, Meriamon, Meritamon, Meryamun, Setepenemout, Sitre, Sitremeryamun, Taouasret, Taousert, Tauwesret, Thuoris, Twosre, Twosret

(a) (b)

Años de reinado: 8 Cronología: 1188-1186 a.C.
Antecesora de: Userjaura-Sethnajt * Sucesora de: Ajenra-Siptah *

Hijo de: Userjeperura-Sethy * (II) (?) Y de: -
Nombre de el/los cónyuge/es: Userjeperura-Sethy * (II)
Nombre de el/los hijo/s: -

Localización de su tumba: Valle de los Reyes (tumba 14)

Gobernantes coetáneos extranjeros: Pendiente de elaboración


Cuenta Diodoro Sículo que la quinta mujer que gobernó Egipto fue aquella que la Egiptología actual identifica con la reina Tausert, de fines de la glamorosa Decimonovena Dinastía, la misma que Manetón, bajo el nombre griego de Tuoris, hizo varón e identificó con el Polibio que cantaba Homero en La Ilíada.

Cartela de la reina-faraón Tausert (lit., “La Poderosa”), quien hizo honor a un nombre que la equiparaba con la diosa-hipopótamo homónima, protectora de las parturientas, los recién nacidos y los niños, tal como ella se constituyó en la regente y protectora de Siptah.

El difícil legado de Ramsés II


Aproximación biográfica

Pendiente de elaboración





La reina Tausert haciendo ofrendas al dios Geb. Tumba KV14 del Valle de los Reyes





When Seti II died, his Great Royal Wife, Queen Twosret, became regent for her husband’s son by a Syrian concubine.  The son suffered from a deformed left leg, possibly the result of polio.  When the child died there was apparently no other male heir so she simply assumed the full titles of Pharaoh and continued to rule in her own name as she had before in the name of her stepson.  She acted as regent for six years and ruled in her own name for only two more. The history of these years is very murky.  The record speaks of an official named Bay who called himself “chancellor of the entire land” and who further claimed to have “established the king on the throne of his father”.  While the formalities were modeled on those of Hatshepsut it is unlikely that she ever exercised much power.

The decline of central authority had already begun in the reign of Rameses III.  By Twosret's reign civil unrest was all too common. She began construction of a mortuary temple to the south of the Ramesseum but never finished it. She was originally buried in KV 14, but her mummy was moved. The Cairo Museum has a mummy that might be hers but it has never been positively identified.






www.narmer.pl/ dyn/33en.

180 - 178/7
Family Tree

Cleopatra I (Syra)

Hwn(t) sAt-HqAt mr(t)-nTrw-bAqt Xqr(t)-n-Xnmw TAtt-sAt-DHwti wr(t)-pHti shr(t)-tAwi rdi.n.s-nbti-rxyt-n-nfrw qni-si-nt-nb(t)-sAw Tni-si-HtHr-m-mrwt.s


 qlwptrt  Cleopatra

        Daughter of Antiokh III and Leodike. She was married to Ptolemy V Epiphanes in 194/3 thus approving peace between Ptolemys and Seleucids. She was mother of three rulers: Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy VII and Cleopatra II. Yet being alive, she was deified together with her husband and then honored with Horus name and numerous titles reserved for rulers. After Epiphanes’ death in 180 she became regent and held rule in behalf of her minor child, Ptolemy VI. She died in 178/7 BC.







170 -
132 - 127
124 -
116 - 116/5

Family Tree

Cleopatra II

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • qlwptrt (nTrt mr(t) mwt)

  • nTrt-mnxt

 qlwptrt (nTrt mr(t) mwt) Cleopatra netjeret meret Mut

     Daughter of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I. She was married to her own brother Ptolemy VI; they had together children: the later coregent Ptolemy Eupator, Ptolemy VII and two daughters: Cleopatra Thea and Cleopatra III. In  145 she married Ptolemy VIII who came to the rule by killing his potential pretender, Ptolemy VII. One year later their son Memfites was born. In 132 as result of civil war, she overtook independently the rule in the land and drove Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III out to Cyprus. Cleopatra did not have support of Egyptian people and her rule rested only against Greeks and Jews. For this reason Ptolemy VIII returned in 130 and regained the rule. After failure of a couple of intrigues organized with Demetrios II against Egypt, Cleopatra could participate in common rule of three in Alexandria since 124 BC.

Family Tree
 140 -
 116/5 - 101

12. Cleopatra III

  • nb(t)-tAwi kA-nxt

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • qlwptrt

  • tA nTrt mr(t) sn

 nb(t)-tAwi kA-nxt

 qlwptrt Cleopatra

     Daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II. She was married to Ptolemy VIII and gave him five children: Ptolemy IX, Tryphaine, Cleopatra (IV), Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Selene. She ruled with her husband and mother, later with sons: Ptolemy IX and X. It seems that she played leading role on Alexandrian court after Ptolemy VIII’s death and she held actually the rule until being murdered on Ptolemy X order in September 101 BC.

101 - 88
81 - 80
Family Tree

13.Berenice III

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • rpat(t) wr(t)-Hsw(t)

  • birnikt

  • ... ...

rpat(t) wr(t)-Hsw(t) birnikt repatet weret hesut, Berenice

       Daughter of Ptolemy IX by Kleopatra Selene, after her father’s death she ruled in Egypt for half a year as a Tea Philopator, which was her cult name. After a Roman dictator Sulla had been driven out, Ptolemy XI returned to Alexandria and married the step-mother in order to strengthen his claim to the rule. A few days later he had murdered her.



58 - 55
Tablica genealogiczna

14.Berenice IV

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • birnikt

          Daughter of Ptolemy XII by Kleopatra V Tryphaine. After driving her father out of Rome she held rule over Egypt, initially together with her mother and after her death in 57 BC – independently. In 56 BC she married Archelaos, son of Mitrydates VI. In 55 BC after his return to Rome, Ptolemy XII ordered to kill Berenice an many of her followers.



before 7 September 58
March/April 55
Berenice IV
Head of Berenice IV (??). Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). From S. Walker & P. Higgs, Cleopatra of Egypt. From history to myth (2001).

Hermana de Cleopatra VII

www.livius.org/ps-pz/ ptolemies/ptolemies.htm

CLEOPATRA VII (Ptolemaic Dynasty)

www.narmer.pl/ dyn/33en.htm

51 - 30
Family Tree

15. Cleopatra VII Philopater ( Loving Father )

  • wr(t) nb(t)-nfrw Ax(t)-sH

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • ... ...

  • qlwpdrt (nTrt mr(t)-it.s)

  • nTrt mr(t) it.s


qlwpdrt (nTrt mr(t)-it.s) Cleopatra, neczeret meret ites  (The Goddess Cleopatra Who Is Beloved Of Her Father)
qlwpdrt Cleopatra


February/March 51
14 January 47
Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII
(Altes Museum, Berlin; ©!!!)
Bust of Cleopatra, Altes Museum Berlin (Germany).


She was a Greek, not an Egyptian, but she ruled Egypt at a time when Rome was struggling to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean World.  Cleopatra, one of the most famous women of all time, tried to find a balance between independence and co-operation with Rome.  While she failed, there was certainly lots of drama in the attempt.  See Cleopatra for the full story.


   Daughter of Ptolemy XII, sister of Kleopatra VI Tryphaine, Berenike IV, Arsinoe, Ptolemy XIII and XIV. She was 18 years old as in 51 BC she came to the throne by marrying her own brother, 13 years old Ptolemy XIII. She was very well educated, spoke many oriental languages. She got into conflict with her regency council which drove her out of Alexandria in 49 BC. Her teenaged brother, aided by three of regents: Poteinos, Achillas and Teodotos, did not let her return. As known, she regained the throne with support of Julius Caesar who played a role of arbiter between the sister and brother. Hostile attitude of Poteinos who stirred up Alexandrians and Ptolemeian army drove to Alexandrian war. It resulted in imprisoning of Ptolemy XIII, burning of Alexandrian library, and taking by Caesar the control over palace district and port with lighthouse at Faros and finally victory of tiny Roman army over the Egyptian one, counting more than 20 thousand warriors. In 47 BC Alexandria surrendered to Caesar and Kleopatra. After Ptolemy XIII’s death Kleopatra gained fullness of royal power, formally assigning Ptolemy XIV as a co-regent. In 46 BC she visited Rome where Caesar celebrated his triumph. After Ceasar’s death in March 44, Cleopatra avoided political intrigues and did not take part in struggle for rule in Rome. In April she returned to Egypt. However famous meeting with Antonius at Tarsos made Kleopatra a partisan of Marcus Antonius whom she later bore three  children: Alexandros Helios, Cleopatra Selene and Ptolemy Philadelphos. Antony was defeated by Partos. His wife Fulvia and brother Lucius set him at variance with Octavian. In aftermaths of this conflict war was unavoidable, despite Antony’s marriage with Octavia, the Octavian’s sister. In 34 BC Antonius confirmed Kleoptara’s royal power as queen of Egypt and Cyprus and accepted Ptolemy XV Caesarion which was evident politic attack against Octavian who did not recognize the son of Caesar. In 32 BC Antony was deprived of designation for office of consul as well as other leading functions. Kleopatra declared war against Rome. Strategic mistakes done by Antony, treason and desertion of legions lead to battle at Actium in 31 BC. After treason of Cyrenaica, Syria and Jewish state as well as Egyptian fleet and cavalary, Egypt was no more able to defend from Octavian’s and Gaius Gallus’s aggression. August 1, 30 BC Alexandria had been conquered. Antonius committed suicide. So did Cleoptara on 12 August 30 BC, thus giving end to the Ptolemaic Period in Egypt.  The Land of the Pharaohs became just a district of Roman Empire.


Stele di Cleopatra VII



www.narmer.pl/ dyn/33en.htm 




La diffusione dell'epigrafia greca coincide con la presenza di parlanti greco in tutte le regioni del mondo antico: dalle coste dell'Atlantico all'Afganistan gli scavi, ufficiali o clandestini, hanno restituito la testimonianza della partecipazione alla storia di questi luoghi o dell'influenza esercitata dai Greci sulla cultura, l'economia, la struttura istituzionale di paesi che avevano conosciuto altre civiltà anche molto raffinate, come l'Egitto.
L'immagine di questa iscrizione è un esempio delle vicende 'parallele' seguite da egiziani e greci dopo la conquista di Alessandro Magno e l'insediamento della dinastia Lagide. Questa bella stele centinata  segue la tradizione egiziana nella simmetrica divisione bipartita tra scena di offerta (un faraone, riconoscibile dalla doppia corona offre delle bevande a Isis che allatta Horos) e testo epigrafico, il quale però è redatto secondo un formulario, quello della dedica per un monarca, e un riferimento all'anno di regno cronologico greco. L'interesse di questo monumento, forse proveniente da Hawara, nel Fayum, e conservato al Museo del Louvre, risiede soprattutto nel fatto che si tratta del più antico documento datato al regno di Cleopatra VII, all'indomani della morte del padre (per il quale presumibilmente era stato predisposta la stele che infatti raffigura un uomo come re), risale infatti al 2 luglio del 51 a.C. (si veda l'ultima edizione di E. Bernand, Inscriptions grecques d'Egypte et de Nubie au Musée du Louvre, Paris 1992).


Indice Parte I Commenti Home Page Epigrafia Greca

L'URL di questa pagina è: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/cleo.htm









Marble statue of Cleopatra VII, c 51-30 BC
Many images were destroyed

                               Marco Antonio. Museo de Alejandría



En su cartucho podía leerse:

Cleopatra Filopátor




Intaglio with a representation of Isis and Horus
(Cleopatra VII and her son of Caesar Ptolemy XV Caesarion?)

Middle first century BC

Alexandria (?)



La muerte de Cleopatra



Note: Ahhotep I was the mother of Ahmose.  There is a stela at Karnak praising her for guarding Egypt, looking after her soldiers, pacifying Upper Egypt and driving out the rebels.  Her deeds appear to go well beyond what was normal for an ordinary King's Great Wife, leading some to wonder if she might have served as regent for her son Ahmose when he first came to the throne. 

Note: It has also been suggested by some that Ahmose-Nefertari acted as regent for her young son, Amenhotep I.  This is based on little more than the length of his reign and the fact that a brother had been named heir apparent about five years earlier.  

Note: A minority of scholars have suggested that Nefertiti ruled as Pharaoh for a couple of years after the death of her husband Akhenaten.  This Website remains unconvinced and so her name is not included in the list of Women Pharaohs.  Notes on her life can be found at Nefertiti---Partner in Akhenaten's Religious Revolution, and a review of the argument about her status as Pharaoh can be found at Did Nefertiti Share Akhenaten's Throne?



www.lexicorient.com/ egypt/saqqara10.htm

Courtyard of temple inside the tomb of Horemheb, Saqqara, Egypt

                                          Saqqara, tumba de Horemheb



I'm not sure what the logical burial place for Ankhesenamun would have been. The Queens of the late 18th dynasty did not get their own tomb it seems.

Horemheb's Queen Mutnedjemet was buried in his Memphis tomb.
Akhenaten's Queen Nefertiti was meant to be buried with him in Amarna.
Amenhotep II's Queen Tiye seems to have been shifted around: from Amarna(?) to the Valley of the Kings.

Ankhesenamen was never meant to be buried with any of her husbands though. There's really no room in Tut's tomb, and she is never mentioned in Aye's tomb. In Aye's tomb, his Queen is clearly his wife Tey.

Equally missing is Ankhesenamen's older sister Meritaten. Her tomb/mummy would be very interesting to find too.
Lady of the Two Lands who lives on Maat, Lady of Charm, Mistress of the Double Plumes, L.P.H, Hereditary Princess, High Priestess of Seshat and Sekhmet.



Ankhesenamun (wife of Tutankhamun) is shown wearing the kind of crown used by New Kingdom queens to demonstrate their increased prestige. 


The Amarna Experiment would made excellent supplementary reading for students of Ancient History. The story covers the lives of the best known family in Ancient Egypt---that of Akhenaten, Nefertiti and Tutankhamun. The story also stresses the idea that the crises of history are created by real people with real emotions, and describes the daily life of Ancient Egyptians, both within and without the palace. 


The Amarna Experiment is available in Hardcover, Paperback and Ebook formats.


Click here to order in hardcover format from amazon.com

Click here to order in paperback or ebook format from iuniverse.com


Editorial Reviews
Product Description:
As Pharaoh of Egypt, Akhenaten decided to turn into reality his dream of a better world, where everyone worshipped the same God. Pharaohs were absolute monarchs, yet Ancient Egypt was a conservative country that prized stability and continuity above all else. Would he succeed in getting an entire nation to abandon its traditional gods and goddesses? Would he find an heir willing to continue the experiment after he died? Would Egypt be able to survive as a major power with just a single deity to hold it together?


Young adults will enjoy this fictionalized presentation of the lives of Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, and other members of the Egyptian royal family, as they struggle to resolve the conflict between their duty to the country and their love for each other. As the story unfolds, readers will not only gain an understanding of a political and religious crisis, but also see a vivid picture of daily life in Ancient Egypt as a colorful cast of characters goes about its business. A final section, “The Historical Background”, examines some of the controversies surrounding the period, and ties the events of the novel to what is actually known about the Amarna Era.


The Amarna Experiment

James C. Thompson

As Pharaoh of Egypt, Akhenaten decided to turn into reality his dream of a better world, where everyone worshipped the same God. Pharaohs were absolute monarchs, yet Ancient Egypt was a conservative country that prized stability and continuity above all else. Would he succeed in getting an entire nation to abandon its traditional gods and goddesses? Would he find an heir willing to continue the experiment after he died? Would Egypt be able to survive as a major power with just a single deity to hold it together?

Young adults will enjoy this fictionalized presentation of the lives of Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, and other members of the Egyptian royal family, as they struggle to resolve the conflict between their duty to the country and their love for each other. As the story unfolds, readers will not only gain an understanding of a political and religious crisis, but also see a vivid picture of daily life in Ancient Egypt as a colorful cast of characters goes about its business. A final section, "The Historical Background", examines some of the controversies surrounding the period, and ties the events of the novel to what is actually known about the Amarna Era.


Ready to buy?

Sign in to turn on 1-Click ordering.
a9.com   Save 1.57% on Amazon purchases. Learn how.

6 used & new from $21.95
Have one to sell? Have one to sell?

Don't have one?
We'll set one up for you.
The Amarna Experiment
by James C. Thompson

List Price: $21.95
Price: $21.95 & Eligible for FREE Super Saver Shipping on orders over $25. See details
Availability: Usually ships within 24 hours from Amazon.com
Only 1 left in stock--order soon (more on the way).

6 used & new from $21.95

Edition: Hardcover

Other Editions: List Price: Our Price: Other Offers:
Paperback $11.95 $11.95 5 used & new from $11.95  
Digital (Download: Adobe Reader) $6.00 $5.40  

Editorial Reviews
Product Description:
As Pharaoh of Egypt, Akhenaten decided to turn into reality his dream of a better world, where everyone worshipped the same God. Pharaohs were absolute monarchs, yet Ancient Egypt was a conservative country that prized stability and continuity above all else. Would he succeed in getting an entire nation to abandon its traditional gods and goddesses? Would he find an heir willing to continue the experiment after he died? Would Egypt be able to survive as a major power with just a single deity to hold it together?


Young adults will enjoy this fictionalized presentation of the lives of Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, and other members of the Egyptian royal family, as they struggle to resolve the conflict between their duty to the country and their love for each other. As the story unfolds, readers will not only gain an understanding of a political and religious crisis, but also see a vivid picture of daily life in Ancient Egypt as a colorful cast of characters goes about its business. A final section, “The Historical Background”, examines some of the controversies surrounding the period, and ties the events of the novel to what is actually known about the Amarna Era.

Product Details

The Egyptians never told us why this change took place, but we can guess.  Emerging out of a period of profound civil unrest, the New Kingdom saw a deliberate attempt to enhance the power and prestige of the monarchy.  Perhaps a prominent queen was a part of the technique used by the kings to make themselves more visible from one end of the land to the other.  

Following the horrors of World War II the United States ended its self imposed isolation and decided to play a major role in world affairs.  Egypt seems to have done the same thing at the beginning of the New Kingdom.  For the first time it established a full time army for service in peace time and in war and for the first time it sought to establish control over lands that contained people who were not Egyptian.  A simple way to demonstrate friendship between two countries was to arrange a marriage between the king of one country and the king's daughter of another.   Royal polygamy made this feasible but increased the need to distinguish between the "real" wife and the ceremonial wives.

Egyptian kings had always had secondary wives, probably to increase the odds of having the all important son to inherit the throne, but the royal harem was small and discrete and kept very much in the background.  The number of secondary wives increased in the New Kingdom and for the first time we see the use of the expression "King's Great Wife" to differentiate between the primary wife and the lesser wives.

Egyptians used the terms "King's Great Wife", "King's Wife" and "King's Mother" where we would use the term Queen.  Their phrasing was much more explicit than ours and clearly identified the queen's place in the scheme of things.



The rules of succession provided that the next pharaoh would be the eldest son by the King's Great Wife.  Failing that, it would be a son by a lesser wife.  Unfortunately we do not have enough evidence to determine exactly how that rule functioned in practice. Did a Pharaoh have a say in which of his lesser wives would have her son become Pharaoh?  We do know that on occasion a Pharaoh would appoint his heir-apparent as co-regent and this would certainly help eliminate any controversy over the succession.  If there was no son by a lesser wife then the throne went to some other male relative. Always, however, the throne went to a man.

At one time it was believed that the succession was matrilineal. The throne went to the man who married the Heiress Princess.  The Heiress Princess would be the eldest daughter of the Heiress Queen, so in most cases kings would end up marrying their sisters.  The theory was developed to explain the large number of brother-sister marriages in the royal family.  Although largely discredited some scholars still cling tenaciously to the theory.

If the heir was a child at the time he became Pharaoh then his mother (presumably the Great Wife of the previous monarch) could become regent.  This did happen on several occasions and in each case the mother performed all of the ceremonial and political requirements of the job.  When Thuthmosis III ascended the throne as a young child in the New Kingdom his mother, Hatshepsut, as expected, became regent and carried out all the duties of king on behalf of her son.   After a few years, however, she simply abandoned the whole idea of a regency and began to call herself the Female Horus, the legitimate Pharaoh, and ruled as full king until her death.

The last time in the New Kingdom that the heir was a child was in the reign of Tutankhamun, who ascended the throne at the age of eight or nine.  Presumably there was someone in the background telling the young king what to do (the most likely candidate for this job was Aye, the chief advisor in the reign of Akhenaten), but there was no formally proclaimed regent.  This meant, of course, that Tutankhamun had to marry Ankhesenamun right away, although Egypt had no history of child marriage.  Although there are several possibilities, we do not really know who Tutankhamun's mother was, and it is quite possible that she had died before he became king and was not available to be regent.



Apart from Hatshepsut and Cleopatra, whose careers are described elsewhere in this web site, the record is too murky to produce a definitive list of women who reigned as pharaoh.  There are some who probably ruled, but might not have, and there are some who probably did not, but might have.  The names of the possible women pharaohs are listed below along with the evidence that supports the claim that they did indeed rule Egypt.





Comments on this web site may be sent to the author at





Brother-sister marriages among Royalty


God's Wife of Amun

Harem---the women's residence

Hatshepsut---the female Horus

Nefertari---Great Wife and favorite of Rameses II

Nefertiti---partner in Akhenaten's religious revolution

Tiy---Great Wife of Amunhotep III

Women Who Reigned As Pharaohs


The status, role and daily life of women in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, Athens, Israel and Babylonia


James C. Thompson,  B.A., M.Ed.

Revised July, 2004



Dowry and Bride Price in the Ancient World

Women in Ancient Egypt

Women in Ancient Rome

Women in Ancient Greece

Women in Ancient Israel

Women in Babylonia under the Hammurabi Law Code




Home Page




       The Amarna Experiment

       Teachers Guide to The Amarna Experiment



       Dowry and Bride Price


       Women in Ancient Egypt

    The Egyptian Economy: the cashless society and women's place in it


    Feminine Titles in Ancient Egypt


    Medicine in Ancient Egypt


    Women and Literacy in Ancient Egypt


    Royal Women In Ancient Egypt


        Brother-Sister Marriage in Ancient Egypt




        God's Wife of Amun


        Harem---The Women's Residence


        Hatshepsut---The Female Horus


        Nefertari---Great Wife and Favorite of Rameses II


        Nefertiti---Partner in Akhenaten's Religious Revolution


            Did Nefertiti Share Akhenaten's Throne?


        Women Who Reigned As Pharaohs


    Women's Clothing and Fashion in Ancient Egypt


    Women, Religion and Piety in Ancient Egypt


        Human Nature in Life and in Death


        Women and Temple Service in Ancient Egypt


        God's Wife of Amun  



















    Women in Greek and Roman Egypt




Women in Ancient Rome


    Women and Marriage in Ancient Rome


    Legal Status of Women in Ancient Rome


    Women and Slavery in Ancient Rome





Cleopatra VII?









    Vestal Virgins


    Julia, Daughter of Augustus


    Intrigue and the Emperor's Women


    The Augustan Reformation


    Justinian's Law as it Applied to Women and Families






Ancient art. GLYPTICS.
Cleopatra VII (?).
Late 1st century B.C. Sardonyx.
Saint-Petersburg, the Hermitage.

Cleopatra VII (?).
Late 1st century B.C. Sardonyx. 2.8 x 2.2 cm.
Saint-Petersburg, the Hermitage.





Women in Ancient Greece


    Women in Athens


    Women in Sparta


    Health---Greek Approach to Women's Health, Illness,

 Pregnancy and Childbirth


    Women and Property in Ancient Athens








Women in Ancient Israel

    Ruth, Naomi and the Levirate Marriage


    Women and the Law in Ancient Israel


    Daily Life in Ancient Israel




Women in Babylonia Under the Hammurabi Law Code  

Comments on this web site may be sent to the author at





                                      www.arthistory.sbc.edu/ imageswomen/matrilinyn...

Queen of Egypt