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21-agosto-2007

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Principal   <<<Entrada general<<<  Textos mesopotámicos

                                                                                      IMPERIO ACADIO

                                                                                                          ( 2334-2154 a.C.)

LOCALIZACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA: Sur de Iraq, entre los ríos Tigris y Eufrates

TERRITORIO: Reino de origen semita, que se extiende hasta Siria, en época de Sargón I.

LENGUAJE: Lengua semita, acadio, escrito en cuneiforme

 

 

Máscara de un rey acadio, posiblemente Sargón I

 

El origen de este pueblo se pierde en la sombra y en la eterna dualidad entre los pueblos sedentarios y los pueblos nómadas. Los acadios eran semitas, pueblos nómadas originarios de la Península Arábiga, que comienzan a moverse hacia el Creciente Fértil coincidiendo con el la prosperidad de las primeras ciudades-estado mesopotámicas.

 

Mientras Lugalzagesi reinaba en Uruk,  el primer copero del rey de Kish usurpó el trono, adoptando el nombre de Sargón ( (2334 a.C.) que se puede traducir como "Rey legítimo".

Su legitimidad no debía ser aceptada en el reino de Kish porque en usurpador trasladó la corte a una nueva capital que fundó él mismo y no estaba identificada con la monarquía anterior. La nueva capital fue Agadé, o Acad, y desde entonces el rey fue conocido como Sargón I de Acad.

 

Alrededor del 2300 a.C. Sargón se enfrentó a Lugalzagesi y lo derrotó tomando el reino de Uruk. Según sus documentos, esta victoria le dio el dominio de Sumer, pero es posible que necesitará varias campañas más para lograr esta sumisión

 

 

Los acadios durante el reinado de Sargón I

 

 

Sargón acabó dominando una extensa región de Mesopotamia que incluía a todo Sumer y que fue conocida como el Imperio Acadio.

 

Sometió a Elam, dejándolo bajo el gobierno del rey de Susa, una de sus ciudades, que a partir de este momento empezó a ganar influencia.

LA LEYENDA DE SARGÓN

Texto recompuesto sobre dos tablillas neoasirias y otra neobabilonia]. Pritchard, 1969, ANET, p. 119

Tablilla con el "curriculum" de Sargón I

  Sargón, el soberano potente, rey de Agadé, soy yo.
Mi madre fue una variable (?), a mi padre no conocí.
Los hermano(s) de mi padre amaron las colinas.
Mi ciudad es Azupiranu, situada en las orillas del Eufrates.
Mi variable madre me concibió, en secreto me dio a luz.
Me puso en una cesta de juncos, con pez selló mi tapadera.
Me lanzó al río, que no se levantó (sobre) mí.
El río me transportó y me llevó a Akki, el aguador.
Akki, el aguador, me sacó cuando hundía su p[o]zal.
Akki, el aguador, [me aceptó] por hijo suyo (y) me crió.
Akki, el aguador, me nombró su jardinero.

Mientras era jardinero, Istar me otorgó (su) amor,
Y durante cuatro y [. . .] años ejercí la realeza.
El [pueblo] de los cabezas negras regí, gob[erné];
Poderosos [mon]tes con azuelas de bronce conquisté,
Las sierras superiores escalé,
Las sierras inferiores [atra]vesé,
Las [tierr]as del mar tres veces recorrí.
Dilmun mi [mano] cap[turó],
[Al] gran Der [subí], yo [...],
[...] alteré y [...].

Cualquier monarca que me suceda,
R[ija, gobierne] el [pueblo] de los cabezas negras;
[Conquiste] poderosos [montes] con azuela[s de bronce],
Escale las sierras superiores,
[Atraviese las sierras inferiores],
¡Recorra las [tierr]as del mar tres veces!
[Capture Dilmun su mano],
¡Suba [al] gran Der y [...]!
[... ] de mi ciudad, Aga[dé ... ]
[...]...[...].

 

 

 
   

Versión de James B. Pritchard, La sabiduría del Antiguo Oriente, Ed. Garriga, Barcelona, 1966, 100-101.

 

 
     


 

 

                                              

Sargón I

 Su legitimidad no debía estar tan clara, pues el nuevo rey prefirió trasladar la corte a una nueva capital fundada por él mismo y que no estuviese asociada a la monarquía anterior. Esta capital fue Agadé, o Acad, y desde entonces el rey fue conocido como Sargón de Acad. Alrededor del 2300 Sargón se enfrentó a Lugalzagesi  de Umma y lo derrotó.

Según sus inscripciones conmemorativas, esta victoria le dio el dominio de todo Sumer, pero parece ser que en realidad necesitó varias campañas más para lograr esta meta.

En cualquier caso, Sargón acabó dominando una extensa región de Mesopotamia que incluía  todo Sumer  y terrotorio más al norte y todo  fue conocida como el Imperio Acadio.

Más aún, sometió al reino de Elam, dejándolo bajo el gobierno del rey de Susa, una de sus ciudades menos destacadas, que a partir de este momento empezó a ganar influencia.

Sargón  I siguió combatiendo y sojuzgando ciudades del norte y del este, mientras la capital de Akad iba engrandeciéndose. Por ejemplo, la ciudad de Assur se había liberado recientemente del dominio de Mari, e instauró una monarquía propia, pero sus reyes se convirtieron en tributarios de Sargón. La propia Mari no tardaría en someterse también al yugo acadio.

Por el contrario, Ebla estuvo a punto de derrotar a Sargón, quien, no obstante, logró rehacerse.

 Ebla conservó su independencia y se convirtió en un importante centro cultural que absorbió la cultura acadia (que a su vez había incorporado la cultura sumeria). En sus restos se han encontrado numerosas tablillas cuneiformes escritas en eblaíta con textos jurídicos, religiosos, diplomáticos, administrativos y económicos. Incluso se han encontrado diccionarios sumerio-eblaítas. Según los escritos acadios, Sargón llegó en sus campañas hasta la costa de Canaán.

wpe24.jpg (36115 bytes)

                                                                           Ref.book: 16, 41; Bibliography; Ref. files: © 2001, Rodney R. Baird

 

Los sucesores de Sargón I

 

                                                                                         -Rimush,

                                                                                         -Manishtusu,

                                                                                         -Naram-Sin,

 


Inscripción de Naram-Sin

[Enheduanna Chart]

 

 

 

                                                                                        -Shar-kali-sharri

                                                                                         -Dudu

                                                                                          -Shu Turul

 


Clavo de arcilla de Ur-Bau

 

 


Entemena's Anzu-styled vase, dedicated to
Ningirsu (Ninurta) of Lagash, 2505-2375 B.C.

 


Stele of Sargon's Slaves

Nombre de Enheduanna  en  cuneiforme.

  

 

Seal describing Enheduanna as a child of Sargon the Great.

 

The Giparu where Enheduanna lived and carried out her religious functions.

En-hedu-Ana is a title and means "The High Priestess [named] Ornament of the Sky"

'en'=High Priestess 'hedu'=Ornament
'Ana'=of the Sky/Heaven
or
of the God of the Sky/Heaven
 

The 'En-hedu-Ana Research Pages' is the only website solely devoted to unearthing En-hedu-Ana --the first known author of all literature. En-hedu-Ana was the great High Priestess of the Moon-god Nanna, at Ur (ancient Iraq). She was the first known author in recorded history to write in the first person. There were many anonymous scribes who wrote before her but she was the first to identify herself in her writings. En-hedu-Ana lived around 2300-2225 BCE and was revered as the most important religious figure of her day.
Through her powerful incantations/songs to Inanna, the goddess of Love and War she changed the course of history and was remembered for centuries after her death. Her writing is so intricate, scholars call her the "Shakespeare of Sumerian literature". Her hymns function as multi-layered incantations, interweaving political, personal, ritual, theological, historical and legal dimensions.


Table of Contents:

Introduction (below):
Enheduana: Shakespeare of Sumerian Literature
A Summary of En-hedu-Ana's Writings
Princess background
Giparu temple where she lived
En-hedu-Ana Today
 

Annette Zgoll Translation of Nin-me-sara poem: "Queen of countless divine powers"
 

Revision of paper on Enheduana's Writings
 

Visual Evidence
 

A Brief History of Writing
 

Roberta Binkley's First Impressions of Enheduanna's Disk in the Museum
 

Bibliographic Resource
 

New Visual Evidence/ Documentary Film
 

***Review of Betty De Shong Meador's NEW book on Enheduana
 

"Dancing with En-hedu-Ana" Workshop
 

"Enheduana's Use of Magic in Ninmesara"a work in progress (2005)
 

Sacred prostitute or High Priestess? Parallels between Mary Magdalene and En-hedu-Ana (article forthcoming)
 

www.oraculartree.com/artist_history20.html


 


Summary List of En-hedu-Ana's Writings:

What has been found of her writings so far, include 6 literary compositions:

The first three form a cycle of hymns to Inanna

1) nin-me-sar-ra "Queen of countless divine powers" more commonly knows as "The Exaltation of Inanna"
This translation comes from Dr. Annette Zgoll (2000) from the University of Munchen.
The first published translation of nin-me-sar-ra comes from Dr. William Hallo, "The Exaltation of Inanna", 1968.
You can find a very accurate translation also at the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature at
http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section4/tr4072.htm

2) in-nin sa-gur-ra "Stout-hearted Lady" was first translated by Ake Sjoberg, in 1974.
You can also find a very accurate translation at the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
Or you can find excerpts.

3) in-nin me-hus-a, "Inanna and Ebih"was first translated by Henri Limet, 1969.You can also find a very accurate translation at the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

4) "e-u-nir": is a Collection of 42 Temple Hymns written for the temples of Sumer and Akkad
Enheduana wrote manyof them and gathered others to make this collection.
You can find a very accurate translation at http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section4/tr4801.htm
You can also read excerpts.

The last two have been published by Dr. Joan Westenholz in 1989. Dr. Westenholz suggests that these hymns were written by Enheduana about her High Priestess role.
5) e-u-gim e-a , "Hymn of Praise to Ekishnugal and Nanna on Assumption of en-ship"
 

6) title broken, "Hymn of Praise of Enheduana"

In addition, Dr. Zgoll and a few other Sumerologists have tied Enheduana's complex writing style to a few other Sumerian texts.

 

 



Princess:

She was the daughter of Sargon the Great, who was the first king to rule an empire joining Sumer and Akkad. He began a tradition that was to last 500 years, whereby the king installed his daughter as en, or High Priestess, of Nanna , the Sumerian Moon God, in the ancient Sumerian city of Ur (Southern Iraq). [She is often mistakenly called a Sumerian princess because she lived in the sumerian city of Ur as a high priestess but her father, Sargon of Akkad, was Akkadian and so was she.] Her high rank and royal background may explain why she is the first to include her name in her most popular hymn,nin-me-sara. As princess of the most prolific king up to that time in history, and installed as en of Nanna, she was in a very powerful position and possessed the clout and the pride to include herself in her writings. As you will see especially in nin-me-sara in which, she wove her own personal story into a hymn to Inanna, leaving us with a record of some details of her life.

 

According to Dr. Joan Westenholz, Enheduana lived ca. 2300-2225 B.C. and the first artifact discovered informing us of her existence is a translucent alabaster disk (above photo is the restored version) which was discovered in pieces by Sir Leonard Woolley in 1925 in section C of the giparu, where she lived.



THE GIPARU

The giparu was a joint building, containing the temple of Ningal, which is the lower section C on the floorplan, and the private, residential quarters of the en priestess- upper right section A. Directly below this section is section B which contains the cemetary where they buried the dead en-priestesses. There are records that show offerings were made to these dead ens, which shows how important they were. To the right of this cemetary is the dining area and below it is the kitchen area. For an excellent, detailed analysis of the giparu please read Penelope Weadock's article, listed in the bibliography.








En-hedu-Ana today:

Now, some 70 years after that discovery, she is becoming more known in scholarly writings as well as the "mainstream". As one of her many modern day scribes, I invite you to email me any questions you may have about Enheduana and I will try to answer them. "What I have done here no one has done before" to quote Enheduana! She wrote that at the end of the Sumerian temple hymns as it was the first time a compilation of hymns to all of the temples of Sumer and Akkad existed. For additional material, read Roberta Binkley's essays on Enheduanna

 

Links

Okeanos: Near Eastern Studies etc...
ABZU: Database for Near Eastern Studies
Diotima
Anahita Board: Study of Women in Antiquity
Oriental Institute at the Univ. of Chicago
Excellent Website on Enheduanna's writings
 

 


Limestone Disk from Ur of Enheduanna with a priest and two priestesses

[Enheduanna Detail]

Esheduanna

 

 

Naram-Suen's Victory Over the Lullubi, found in Susa


Estela de los Buitres , conmemorativa de la victoria de  Eannatum
de Lagash sobre Umma, 2525 B.C

 

 


 

[Enheduanna Reverse]

Enheduanna Reverse

[Enheduanna Right Edge]

Enheduanna Right Edge

 

 

 


 

 

 

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