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  Entrada Antigua

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 LA GORGONA MEDUSA 12. 

CONCLUSIONES  I

 

Fig.37.Medusa. Pella,Macedonia

 

página  12, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7 8, 9 , 10, 11, 12, 13

Fig.38

 1.Universalidad el mito

                  Somos conscientes de la dificultad de la interpretación de un mito, así como de que el hecho de  tratar de  averiguar  su procedencia u origen basándonos  solamente en noticias literarias y  leyendas mitológicas puede llevarnos, según los puntos de vista y la diversa formación de los diferentes autores, a conclusiones heterogéneas y totalmente dispares.   Y como Caro Baroja decía, refiriéndose al mito de Gerión, 

" pensamos que tanto aquellos que se refieren a su antecesora Medusa o Gorgonas y la raza de las serpientes  como el mito referente a este personaje    es un mito histórico cultural  que, nazca donde nazca,  se aplica pronto a la tierra a la que mejor conviene  según la mentalidad  de los que creen en él, y por comparación probable  con mitos propios de aquel país mismo”.

 

 Pero , de Oriente a Occidente o viceversa, la descendencia de Gorgona  se  divide radicalmente  en oriental y occidental, como señala Bermejo Barrera, índice tal vez de su doble procedencia de ambos extremos del Mediterráneo. Y esta descendencia, en Occidente, es índice de prosperidad  y poder,  ya que  aúna, en  la persona de su hijo Crisaor, ( “espada de oro”) , el oro y la riqueza que más tarde  se encuentran en los grandes rebaños de los reyes tartésicos  Gerión[1] y   Argantonio, el “rey de plata” y en el mismo Jardín de las Hespérides[2]. Fig.39.

P23.10 GORGONEION

Museum Collection: Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany
Catalogue Number: Munich 2088
Beazley Archive Number: 301250
Ware: Attic Black Figure
Shape: Eye cup
Painter: Attributed to Nikosthenes
Date: ca 530 BC
Period: High Archaic

SUMMARY

Side: A flute-playing Satyros (see other image)
Tondo: A Gorgoneion (Gorgon's head). The rounded face of the Gorgon is depicted with wide staring eyes, a broad mouth, protruding tongue and beard.

Fig.40.

P23.4 PERSEUS & MEDOUSA

Museum Collection: The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA
Catalogue Number: Malibu 86.AE.146
Beazley Archive Number: 10150
Ware: Attic Black Figure (White Ground)
Shape: Kyathos
Painter: Attributed to a follower of the Theseus Painter
Date: ca 510 BC
Period: Archaic

Y  puede ser también índice  de un cambio un  cultural como reconoce  J. Maluquer[3], para quien  “ como  parece expresar la lucha de Heracles contra un monstruo triforme, estamos en presencia de un choque de civilizaciones, dos cultos y dos pueblos”[4].  Estamos también, en nuestra opinión , ante  un héroe civilizador, similar a tantos otros, como Habis o Gárgoris o el mismo Gerión,  que lucha contra la incultura y atraso  anteriores,  o el que emprende un difícil  camino iniciático: Miles de fórmulas y soluciones  inimaginables caben aplicar a una lucha que es todo un arquetipo y que existe  en todas y cada una de las culturas conocidas, cuya explicación  detallada haría inacabable esta comunicación.

[1] Estesícoro compuso un poema dedicado a Gerión y Estrabón ha conservado un fragmento en el que se afirma que  la isla de Gerión se llamaba Erytheia y estaba situada frente a Tartesos y Gadeira; de ella surgirán las raíces de plata del río Tartesos. Cfr. BERMEJO BARRERA, op. cit.p. 198. También sobre Gerión cfr. BLÁZQUEZ, J. Mª: “Gerión y otros mitos griegos en Occidente”, Gerión 1, Madrid, Universidad Complutense 1983, pp. 21-38; MALUQUER DE MOTES, J.: Tartessos. Ed .Destino, Barcelona 1990;  ALVAR, J.-BLÁZQUEZ, J.Mª: Los enigmas de Tarteso. Ed.Cátedra, Madrid 1993.

[2]  ARANEGUI GASCÓ, C.: “Argantonio, rey de Tartessos”, en  Argantonio, rey de Tartessos. Catálogo de la exposición , Fundación El Monte, Sevilla 2000, pp. 21-36 y en general todos los artículos de dicho  Catálogo.

[3] MALUQUER, J.: Tartessos y su “historia”. V Symposium Internacional  de Prehistoria Peninsular,  Septiembre 1968, Barcelona 1969, p. 384 y ss.

[4]  Esta lucha de un héroe contra un monstruo serpentiforme tiene una larga tradición próximo-oriental, recuérdese a Marduk- Tiamat, Yahvé-Leviatán , por ejemplo ...o la serpiente hitita Iluyanka, etc. O en el  ámbito heleno el  mito del Vellocino de Oro de la Cólquide, guardado por una serpiente ( o dragón) que recupera Jasón con la ayuda de Medea, el enfrentamiento de Horus y la serpiente  Apofis  en Egipto etc..., que se amplia al área védica o irania con las luchas entre Mitra y Varuna, el Bién y el Mal, la Luz y la Obscuridad, Apolo contra Pitón, etc...

       

 



 

Forcis.FUENTES
  • Hesiodo, Teogonia - Poeta Épico griega C8th-7th  a.C.
  • Homero, La Odisea - Poeta Épico griego C9th-8th a.C. Liricos griegos  II Alcman, Fragments - Poeta Épico griego C7th BC
  • Apolodoros, Libreria - Miógrafo griego C2nd a.C.
  • Apolonio de Rodas, Argonauticas -Poeta Épico griego C3rd a.C.
  • Lycophron, Alexandra -   Poeta Griego,C3rd BC
  • Valerius Flaccus,  Argonautica –Poeta  Épico latino,  C1st  d.C.
  • Statius, Silvae -Poeta  Epico latino C1st AD

 

P23.12 GORGON

Museum Collection: The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA
Catalogue Number: Malibu 86.AE.77
Beazley Archive Number: 9094
Ware: Attic Black Figure
Shape: Neck Amphora
Painter: --
Date: ca 530 BC
Period: Archaic

SUMMARY

A striding Gorgon is depicted with double wings, a broad round face, and tusks.

GriegoSingular:
Griego  Plural:
Gorgo Gorgon
GorgoneV
Transliteracion: Gorgo / Gorgon
Gorgones
Traducción: Terrible, Fierce
Latin : Gorgona Gorgonas        
 

MEDUSA, EURYALE, ESTENO  http://www.theoi.com/

Griego: Transliteraciones: Traducción Nombres latinos
Medousa Medoush
Eurualh
Sqennw
Medusa / Medusê
Euryalê
Sthennô /Stheinô
El Guardian
Wide-Stepping
La más fuerte
Medusa
Euryale
Esteno
   






LAS GRAIAS x3
PEMPHREDO
ENYO
DEINO

LAS GORGONAS x3
ESTENIO
EURIALE

 
 
FORCIS
= Ceto

MEDUSA *
- Poseidon


PEGASO

CRISAOR
= Kallirhoe GERION

 LA RAZA DE ME   DUSA

     
   
DRAGONA EQUIDNA
= Tifón
  HIJO  DE  EQUIDNA
   


.
DRAGÓN LADON *

THOOSA

 
 
CETO
= Forcis

- Poseidon   CICLOPE POLIFEMO
   

 ESCILA

LAS CERES  (Monstruos del mar)

 
 




.
EURYBIA
= Krios

AIGAION

HALIA

 
- Poseidon DEMONIOS PROSEOOUS   
 
.

LOS  TELQUINES x4

 
.
.
    DELPHINOS

ARGYRA

 
PARENTS
[1.1] PHORKYS & KETO (Hesiod Theogony 270, Apollodorus 1.10)
[1.2] PHORKYS (Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 791, Pausanias 2.21.5, Dionysiaca 24.270)
[2.1] GORGON & KETO (Hyginus Pref & Fabulae 151)
NAMES
[1.1] MEDOUSA, EURYALE, STHENNO (Hesiod Theogony 270, Pindar Pythian 12, Apollodorus 2.39, Hyginus Pref, Nonnus Dionysiaca 40.227)
OFFSPRING MEDOUSA
[1.1] PEGASOS, KHRYSAOR (by Poseidon) (Hesiod Theogony 278, Apollodorus 2.40, Lycophron 840, Hyginus Pref, Nonnus Dionysiaca 31.13)

ENCYCLOPEDIA

 
Greek Name:
Transliteration:
Translation:
Gorgo Gorgon
Gorgo, Gorgon
Grim, Fierce, Terrible (gorgos)
 
GorgoneV
Gorgones
Grim, Fierce, Terrible

GORGO and GO′RGONES (Gorgô and Gorgones). Homer knows only one Gorgo, who, according to the Odyssey (xi. 633), was one of the frightful phantoms in Hades: in the Iliad (v. 741, viii. 349, xi. 36; comp. Virg. Aen. vi. 289), the Aegis of Athena contains the head of Gorgo, the terror of her enemies. Euripides (Ion, 989) still speaks of only one Gorgo, although Hesiod (Theoy. 278) had mentioned three Gorgones, the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, whence they are sometimes called Phorcydes or Phorcides. (Aeschyl. Prom. 793, 797; Pind. Pyth. xii. 24; Ov. Met. v. 230.) The names of the three Gorgones are Stheino (Stheno or Stenusa), Euryale, and Medusa (Hes. l. c.; Apollod. ii. 4. § 2), and they are conceived by Hesiod to live in the Western Ocean, in the neighbourhood of Night and the Hesperides. But later traditions place them in Libya. (Herod. ii. 91; Paus. ii. 21. § 6.) They are described (Scut. Here. 233) as girded with serpents, raising their heads, vibrating their tongues, and gnashing their teeth; Aeschylus (Prom. 794. &c., Choëph. 1050) adds that they had wings and brazen claws, and enormous teeth. On the chest of Cypselus they were likewise represented with wings. (Paus. v. 18. § 1.) Medusa, who alone of her sisters was mortal, was, according to some legends, at first a beautiful maiden, but her hair was changed into serpents by Athena, in consequence of her having become by Poseidon the mother of Chrysaor and Pegasus, in one of Athena's temples. (Hes. Theog. 287, &c.; Apollod. ii. 4. § 3; Ov. Met. iv. 792; comp. Perseus.) Her head was now of so fearful an appearance, that every one who looked at it was changed into stone. Hence the great difficulty which Perseus had in killing her; and Athena afterwards placed the head in the centre of her shield or breastplate. There was a tradition at Athens that the head of Medusa was buried under a mound in the Agora. (Paus. ii. 21. § 6, v. 12. § 2.) Athena gave to Heracles a lock of Medusa (concealed in an urn), for it had a similar effect upon the beholder as the head itself. When Heracles went out against Lacedaemon he gave the lock of hair to Sterope, the daughter of Cepheus, as a protection of the town of Tegea, as the sight of it would put the enemy to fight. (Paus. viii. 47. § 4; Apollod. ii. 7. § 3.)

The mythus respecting the family of Phorcys, to which also the Graeae, Hesperides, Scylla, and other fabulous beings belonged, has been interpreted in various ways by the ancients themselves. Some believed that the Gorgones were formidable animals with long hair, whose aspect was so frightful, that men were paralysed or killed by it, and some of the soldiers of Marius were believed to have thus met with their death (Athen. v. 64). Pliny (H. N. iv. 31) thought that they were a race of savage, swift, and hair-covered women; and Diodorus (iii. 55) regards them as a race of women inhabiting the western parts of Libya, who had been extirpated by Heracles in traversing Libya. These explanations may not suffice, and are certainly not so ingenious as those of Hug, Hermann, Creuzer, Böttiger, and others, but none of them has any strong degree of probability.

MEDUSA (Medousa). A daughter of Phorcys and Ceto, and one of the Gorgons.

STHEINO or STHENO (Stheinô or Sthenô), one of the Gorgons. (Hes. Theog. 276 ; Apollod. ii. 4. § 2.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. C19th Classics Encyclopedia.
 

PARENTAGE & GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS

"And to Phorkys Keto bore the Graiai, with fair faces and gray from birth, and these the gods who are immortal and men who walk on the earth call Graiai, the gray sisters, Pemphredo robed in beauty and Enyo robed in saffron, and the Gorgones who, beyond the famous stream of Okeanos, live in the utmost place toward night, by the singing Hesperides: they are Sthenno, Euryale, and Medousa, whose fate is a sad one, for she was mortal, but the other two immortal and ageless both alike. Poseidon, he of the dark hair, lay with one of these, in a soft meadow and among spring flowers. But when Perseus had cut off the head of Medousa there sprang from her blood great Khrysaor and the horse Pegasos so named from the springs (pegai) of Okeanos, where she was born." - Hesiod, Theogony 270

"By him [Phorkys] she [Keto] conceived and bare the Gorgones, fearful monsters who lived in Sarpedon, a rocky island in deep-eddying Okeanos." - Homerica, The Cypria Frag 21 (from Herodian, One Peculiar Diction)

"There [depicted on the shield of Akhilleus] were the ruthless Gorgones: through their hair horribly serpents coiled with flickering tongues." - Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5.38

"[Prometheus to Io:] When you have crossed the stream that bounds two continents [the Red Sea] press on, over the surge of the sea towards the east where the sun stalks in flame, to the Gorgonean land, Kisthene. There live Phorkys' aged virgin daughters [the Graiai] ... beings on whom no ray of sun ever looks down, nor moon at night. And close to them their three winged sisters, loathed enemies of humankind, the snake-haired Gorgones, whom no man can see and live." - Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 791

"Gorgones shrouded in black, their heads wreathed swarming serpents." - Aeschylus, The Libation Bearers 1049

"Phorkys and Keto had [offspring] the Phorkides and the Gorgones." - Apollodorus, The Library 1.10

"From Gorgon and Ceto [were born]: Sthenno, Euryale, Medusa." - Hyginus, Preface

"From Typhon the giant and Echidna were born Gorgon ... From Medusa, daughter of Gorgon, and Neptunus [Poseidon], were born Chrysaor and horse Pegasus." - Hyginus, Fabulae 151

"Gorgones Tithrasiai (Tithrasian Gorgons): Tithrasos [is a] river, or a location in Libya, where the Gorgons resided." - Suidas "Gorgones Tithrasiai"

Z47.8 HEAD OF MEDOUSA

Museum Collection: Antakya Museum,
Antakya, Turkey
Catalogue Number: TBA
Type: Floor Mosaic
Context: Antioch, House of the Red Pavement
Date: C2nd - C3rd AD
Period: Imperial Roman

SUMMARY

The head of Medousa is depicted with winged brow and a wreath of serpentine locks.

ARTICLES

 

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