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Historia Antigua Próximo Oriente  y Egipto I. Ed.Sanz y Torres.
  Los Pueblos del Mar( Cuadro sinóptico) y Los Pueblos del Mar, un enigma histórico

Ha salido el III Tomo: El mundo mediterráneo I ( Grecia desde siglo IV-

Alejandro Magno-( <----VER PORTADA ) Mundo helenístico-Cartago-República romana).

  libreria@sanzytorres.com

Vida de Alejandro de Plutarco

Ha salido el volumen II de mi libro del Próximo Oriente y Egipto ISBN 84-96094-29-4;
TÚNEZ: Yacimientos, historia, Guerras Púnicas etc...Para la historia de Cartago, ver mi  ultimo libro, supra la portada.

TARTESSOS ( India, Reyes, Fuentes literarias , Cádiz,)

'El templo de Heracles-Melkart de Gades y su papel económico'

 
ENTRADA
 

.        .

Seleuco I, tetradracma de plata

 
 

Dinastía Seleúcida

Después de la muerte de Alejandro Magno, sus generales se repartieron el imperio, siendo protagonistas durante veinte años de grandes luchas y peleas por obtener el poder. Fueron los llamados diádocos, (διαδοχος) o sucesores o herederos. Después de estos antiguos generales gobernaron los llamados epígonos (επιγονος), (los nacidos después o sucesores). La lucha entre ellos para obtener el poder y la hegemonía duró casi cincuenta años, hasta el 281 adC en que murió el último de los diádocos, Seleuco I Nikátor.

 

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La Dinastía Seleúcida fue fundada por Seleuco I Nikátor, tras la derrota y muerte del general Antígono Monoftalmos. Esta dinastía gobernó hasta el año 69 adC. Su territorio comprendía Babilonia y Siria y gran parte de Asia Menor. Este vasto territorio se extendía hacia el este, hacia lo que hoy es Pakistán y comprendía toda la gran meseta de Irán hasta llegar a las montañas de la India y por el norte hasta los desiertos del mar de Aral. Estaba constituido por 20 pueblos de distintas razas, lengua y religión, con un total de más de 30 millones de habitantes. Tuvo dos capitales: Antioquía en Siria (actualmente Antakya, Turquía) y Seleucia del Tigris en Mesopotamia.

Esta dinastía fue heredera de la cultura helenística que procuraron difundir, pero gobernaron al modo de sus antecesores los reyes sirios, mesopotámicos y persas, haciéndose sus reyes adorar como a dioses. Frecuentemente estuvieron en guerra con la dinastía Ptolemaica de Egipto.

Pero fue un reino demasiado grande, demasiado plural y los Seleúcidas fueron perdiendo poco a poco el gobierno de las tierras del este del río Éufrates y más tarde fueron expulsados de Asia Menor. Los pueblos de Irán eran persas, medos y bactrianos y habían sabido conservar su antigua religión y su lengua, así que los gobernadores de estos territorios aprovecharon la decadencia de los Seleúcidas para ser independientes. El gobernador griego de la Bactriana, Diódoto, tomó el título de rey en el 254 adC, comenzando de esta manera el reino de Bactriana (hoy país de Balkh), conservando el griego como idioma, reino que duró hasta el año 126.

En el año 64 adC el romano Pompeyo Magno destituyó a los dos pretendientes al trono seleúcida y Roma se anexionó todos los territorios.

Reyes más importantes de esta dinastía:

 


Antioco I de Siria, 280-261 BC
Antioco IV de Siria, 175-164 BC
Seleuco VI, 95-94 BC

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AR Tetradrachm. 16.75g. Smyrna mint. Diademed head r. of Antiochus I. Rv: Apollo seated l. on omphalus, holding bow and arrow. SNG Spaer 239. Fine style

Very Fine

280 to 261 BCE

Tetradrachm, diademed heard right / nude Herakles seated left on rock, lion skin draped over rock, club in right hand. Magnesia ad Sipylum mint.
ANTIOCO I SOTER . Son of Seleukos I. Joint reign with father from 293 to 280. Had victory over Gallic invaders of Asia Minor. Given name "soter" which means savior

 

Antiochus II, Theos, 261 to 246 BCE
AR Tetradrachm.  Diademed head right / Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding bow in right hand.
Son of Antiochus I, was weak, and alcoholic and under influence of favorites. At war with Ptolemic Egypt during much of reign. Parthia and Baktria asserted independence.
Seleukos II, Kallinikos, 246 to 226 BCE

SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Seleukos II. 246-226 BC. AR Tetradrachm  Uncertain mint, perhaps Antioch. Diademed head right / Apollo standing left, holding arrow in right hand, resting left elbow on tripod. 
Diademed head right / Seleukos on horseback left holding long spear. Uncertain mint in Northern Syria.
Jugate heads of Dioskouroi right wearing laureate pileus, stars on either side / anchor upwards, horse head right.
   
Elder son of Antiochus II, conflict with brother, Antiochus Hierax, who ruled independently in Asia Minor. Died from fall from horse.
Antiochus Hierax, 246 to 227 BCE
Tetradrachm, Diademed draped bust right / Apollo seated left on omphalos holding arrow and bow.  Cilician mint. 
Younger son of Antiochus II, in 228 he attacked his brother, Seleukos II, which failed. He was murdered by marauding Gauls
Seleukos III, Keraunos, 226 to 223 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Seleukos III. 226-223 BC. Æ 15mm (2.46 gm). 
Antioch mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Apollo seated left on 
omphalos, holding arrow and bow; monogram outer left.
Elder son of Seleukos II, Tried o check the growing power of Attalos of Pergamon and invaded his territory. Invasion was a failure. He was murdered by own officers
Antiochus III, the Great, 223 to 187 BCE  
Antiochus III, the Great, Seleucid, Greek, 223-187 BCE, Tetradrachm, AR, 16.9g, 1 1/8" dia., O: Diademed head right; AB monogram behind R: Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow and bow. "King Antiochus", Legend on reverse: ANTIOCOU BASILEWS, (ANTIOCOU BASILEWS), King Antiochus
Younger son of Seleukos II and brother of Seleukos III, he was soldier of great ability and between 212 to 205 campaigned to and restored Alexander's empire in Judaea from Ptolemy V as well as in Parthia and Baktria. Later he was defeated by Romans after they defeated Phillip V of Macedon in 197. Murdered in Elymais
   
 
 

 

 

 

Hellenistic or Roman copy of the omphalos (Navel Stone) of Delphi.

 

Example of diadem, Greece, 2 century BCE, Dallas Museum of Art
Molon, 222 to 220 BCE  Satrap of Media, he rebelled against Antiochus III. After initial success he was defeated in battle and took own life
Achaios, 220 to 214 BCE Uncle of Antiochus III was appointed commander in chief of Asia Minor. Restored Seleucid authority then rebelled against Antiochus III and proclaimed himself king. After 2 year siege by nephew, was captured and beheaded
Seleukos IV, Philopator, 187 to 175 BCE
Seleucus IV, 187-175 B.C. AR Tetradrachm,  Antioch mint. Diademed hd. of Seleucus r. Rv. Apollo seated l. on omphalos hld. bow and arrow; wreath and palm in field to l. 
Elder son of Antiochus III the Great, Kingdom was smaller since Asia Minor, Parthia and Baktria were independent. Had to pay war-indemnity to Romans. Governed what was left well. Murdered by Minister Heliodoros
Antiochus, 175 to 170 BCE Son of Seleukos IV (5 years old in 175), Heliodoros (Seleukos IV Minister and murderer) seized power in his name. Short joint rule with Antiochus IV then disappears from history
Antiochus IV, Epiphanes,

175 to 164 BCE

Antiochus IV, 175-164 BCE, Tetradrachm, AR, 16.9g, 1 1/16" dia., AR,  Ake mint, Judas Maccabee defeated Antiochus IV and cleansed temple. Hanukah observance commemorates this event. Maccabean Kingdom followed.
Epiphanes means "God made manifest" Younger son of Antiochus III the Great, invaded Egypt but withdrew because of pressure from Rome. Despoiled Temple in Jerusalem, put statue to Zeus there.   Forced Jews to worship Greek Gods and prohibited circumcision.  Lost conflict to Judas Maccabee who purified Temple an event upon which Festival of Hanukkah is based.
Antiochus V, Eupator, 164 to162 BCE

SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Antiochos V. 164-162 BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.44 
gm). Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre; monogram outer left.
Son of Antiochus IV, (9 years old in 164), was challenged and murdered by cousin Demetrius I after he escaped captivity in Rome
Demetrius I, Soter, 162 to150 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Demetrios I. 162-150 BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.68 gm). Antioch mint. Diademed head right, within wreath / Tyche seated, holding baton and cornucopiae, Nereid supporting throne; monogram outer 
 
Head of dog left / forepart of griffin right.
Son of Seleukos IV, held captive in Rome for 13 years, escaped to murder cousin and take power. Killed by Alexander Balas in battle who claimed to be another son of Antiochus IV
Timarchos, Usurper in Babylon, 162 BCE
Diademed head of Timarchos right / Nike walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.  Babylon mint.
Satrap of Babylon appointed by Antiochus IV, did not recognize Demetrius I and proclaimed himself a King. He was quickly defeated by Demetrius I
Alexander I, (Balas), 150 to 145 BCE  
 
Diademed head of King right   Reverse Zeus enthroned   
Tetradrachm, AR, 11g, 1" dia.O: Diademed head right R: Eagle standing on beak of galley, palm branch behind, club left field and date right. Minted 150 BCE.
This tetradrachm must have passed through the hands of one of the supporters of Demetrius II during their bitter civil war.  The portrait Alexander has suffered very specific mutilations: blows to the forehead, eye, ear and mouth.  A graphic ancient damnatio! (this coin is a fake!)  
 
Claimed to be another son of Antiochus IV, swept to power with support of Ptolemy of Egypt and Attalos of Pergamon. Dissolute lifestyle - was overthrown by Demetrius II
Demetrius II, Nikator, 145 to140 BCE
Demetrios II, 1st reign, 145-140 BCE, Diademed head of Demetrios right / anchor, flukes upward; flower to left.  Youthful portrait. 
First reign, Diademed draped bust right / eagle standing left on prow, palm over shoulder, club left. 
1st reign. Elder son of Demetrius I, he overthrew Alexander I with help of Ptolemy of Egypt. Recognized independence of Hasmonean state in Judaea in 142. Was captured by the Parthians in 140 and was held in honorable captivity for 10 years.  Younger son of Demetrius I and younger brother of Demetrius II, disposed of Tryphon. Campaigned with success in Palestine and Babylon. Ruled with competence and integrity. Allowed first Jewish coins to be minted under John Hyrcanus I during second reign.    See second reign
Antiochus VI, Dionysos, 145 to142 BCE
 
Antioch mint. Radiate and diademed head of King right.   Reverse Helmet with cheek pieces and ibex horn. Right field: KING ANTIOCHUS, BASILEWS ANTIOCOU (BASILEWS ANTIOCOU) Left field: DIONUSOU EPIFANOUS, Dionysos Epiphanes. TPY, which stands for Tryphon, between horn and helmet.   
Infant son of Alexander I, was proclaimed King (and later murdered by the General Diodotus who aspired to throne) in opposition to Demetrius II.   Tryphon had the young boy killed and usurped the throne in 142;  the reverse of his coins depict the same Macedonian helmet type as first issued under Antiochus VI.
Tryphon, (Diodotus), 142 to 138 BCE
Tetradrachm, Diademed head right / Macedonian cavalry helmet with ibex horn, thunderbolt on cheek guard, all within oak wreath. Very rare, choice portrait of this short lived usurper.
another example of this coin
features tall helmet similar to one on Herod Archelaus coin., AR Drachm. Antioch. Diademed hd. of King r. Rv. Macedonian helmet with large spike and ibex horn.

 
General Diodotus proclaimed himself King after murdering Antiochus VI. He was overthrown by Antiochus VII
Antiochus VII, Euergetes, (Sidetes), 138 to129 BCE
Kingdom of Syria, Antiochus VII Sidetes, 138-129 BC, AR tetradrachm, (16.59g) Antioch or mint associated with Antioch, Diademed and draped head right, fillet border. / BA…ILEW… ANTIOXOU EYER |ETOU Athena standing left, holding Nike and spear, shield at feet, Q L in fields, DI and L monogram to left, all in wreath. 

Antiochus VII, O: Lily surrounded by dots R: Anchor upside down surrounded by Greek legends. BASILEWS ANTIOCOU (right) EUERGETOU (left) (BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU) King Antiochus Benefactor. Seleucid coin minted in Jerusalem under Hasmonean leader John Hyrcanus. First coin ever minted under Jewish authority.  Hendin 541.
Demetrius II, Nikator, 129to125 BCE, second reign

 

Syria, Seleukid Kings. Demetrios II. Second Reign. 129-125 BC. AR Tetradrachm (16.53 gm). Year 185 (128-127 BC). Damascus mint. Diademed and bearded head of Demetrios right / [B]ASILEW[S] DHMHTRIO[U] right, QEOU NIKATORO[S] left, Zeus seated left on throne, holding Nike and sceptre; XD below throne, EPR in exergue.  Good VF, slightly weak strike. Estimate $750. 
Antioch mint. Diademed and bearded head of Demetrios right / [B]ASILEW[S] DHMHTRIO[U] right, QEOU NIKATORO[S] left, Zeus seated left on throne, holding Nike and sceptre; 
Second reign, Released from captivity by the Parthians in 129 BCE.  His arrival at Antioch coincided with the death of Antiochos in battle and resumed his former place as King of Syria. Allowed first Jewish coins to be minted under John Hyrcanus I. Following an abortive attack on Ptolemaic Egypt he lost the northern part of his Kingdom to the usurper Alexander Zebina, and in 125 BCE was murdered in Tyre. See 1st reign
   
 
 
Alexander II, (Zebina), 128 to 123 BCE
Tetradrachm, Diademed head right / Zeus left holding Nike in right hand, lotus tipped scepter right hand. 
Claimed to be adopted son of Alexander I, rebelled against Demetrius II with backing of Ptolemy VII of Egypt. Defeated by Cleopatra and son Antiochus VIII.
Seleukos V*, 125 BCE Elder son of Demetrius II (and Cleopatra), mother wanted power, he was murdered and she assumed power.
Cleopatra, 125 BCE Daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Married Alexander I, Demetrius II and Antiochus VII - bearing eight children. After murder of son, Seleukos V, ruled alone until public demanded that she rule with her son Antiochus VIII
Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII, 125 to 121 BCE
Cleopatra Thea & Antiochos VIII, Antioch mint. conjoined busts right of Cleopatra veiled, wearing diadem, and Antiochos diademed / Zeus seated left on throne, holding Nike and lotus tipped sceptre. 
Joint reign of mother and son. Cleopatra was obliged to drink a cup of poison which she had prepared for her son.
Antiochus VIII, Grypos, 121 to 96 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Antiochos VIII. First Reign. 121-113 BC. AR 
Tetradrachm (16.54 gm). Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Zeus 
Oranios standing left, holding star and sceptre
Third reign, 108-96 BCE.  Diademed head right / Zeus on throne left holding Nike.
Younger son of Demetrius II (and Cleopatra). Disposed of mother. Inept. At war with half brother Antiochus IX during much of reign. Disastrous decline of Kingdom to minor east Mediterranean state.
Antiochus IX, Kyzikenos, 113 to 95 BCE
Antiochus IX, tetradrachm. Diademed head right / Athena standing half left holding Nike in her right hand, shield and spear in her left.
Son of Antiochus VII and Cleopatra. At war with half brother Antiochus VIII who was murdered in 96BCE. Captured Antioch in 113 BCE. Was murdered by nephew, Seleukos VI.
Seleukos VI, Epiphanes, 95 to 94 BCE

SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Seleukos VI. 95-94 BC. AR Tetradrachm  Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre; letters and monogram outer left, A under throne.
Eldest son of Antiochus VIII. Attacked and defeated uncle Antiochus IX in 95 BCE. Was driven from Antioch in by cousin Antiochus X in 94 BCE.
Antiochus X, Eusebes, 94 to 83 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Antiochos X. 94-92 BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.55 gm). Antioch mint. Diademed head right / Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre; monogram and A to left, monogram under throne. 
Son of Antiochus IX. Avenged father by defeating Seleukos VI in 94 BCE. Almost constant warfare with Seleukos' brothers.
Antiochus XI, Epiphanes, 93 BCE Son of Antiochus VIII. Joined with brothers Phillip and Demetrius III to drive cousin Antiochus X, out of Syria and avenge their older brother. Lost his life in battle.
Demetrius III, Philopator, 95 to 88 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Demetrios III. 95-88 BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.88 
gm). Damascus mint. Year 222 (91/90 BC). Diademed head right / Cult 
statue of Atargatis facing; N and A in left field, BKS and monogram in 
exergue.
Another son of Antiochus VIII. After joining forces with brother Phillip they quarreled and Demetrius was defeated leaving Phillip master of Antioch. Invaded Judaea in 89 during Alexander Jannaeus reign.
Phillip I, Philadelphos, 93 to 83 BCE
SYRIA, Seleukid Kings. Philip Philadelphos. 89-83 BC. AR Tetradrachm (15.78 gm). Uncertain mint in Northern Syria or Cilicia. Diademed head 
of Philip right / Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre; NK 
monogram/A left, AP monogram at knee, monogram under throne. 
 
Another son of Antiochus VIII. Most of his reign was spent fighting relatives. Ruler of Antioch. Was eventually driven out of Syria by Tigranes, king of Armenia.
Antiochus XII, Dionysos, 88 to 84 BCE
Tetradrachm, 86-85 BCE, Diademed head right / Cult statue of Haddad standing facing on double basis, flanked by two bull foreparts, holding grain stalk in right hand.
Youngest of five sons of Antiochus VIII. Succeeded brother Demetrius III. Fought with brother Phillip. Killed in battle by Nabataean Arabs.
Tigranes II of Armenia, 83 to 69 BCE
Tetradrachm, Draped bust right wearing tiara with star and eagles; beaded pyramidal points on tiara / Tyche of Antioch seated on rock, holding branch, river-God Orontes below M and A below on rocks. Antioch mint.
 
King of Armenia. Called upon by the Syrians to restore order and end fratricidal wars. Defeated Phillip. Driven out of Syria by Roman general Lucullus.
Antiochus XIII, Asiatikos, 69 to 64 BCE Son of Antiochus X. Spent youth in Asia and Rome. Placed on Slacked throne by Romans. Murdered by Arab chieftain. Last of Seleucid rulers.
Roman rule, after 64 BCE Roman General Pompey the Great made Syria a Roman province. Coins produced by Romans for thirty years in the name of Phillip, Philadelphos.

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